[Blackstudies-l] with my apologies for having forwarded the email

Maria Lima lima at geneseo.edu
Wed Apr 4 06:03:55 EDT 2018

and thanks to Beth and Justin for having caught it.   You will be relieved
that I will not be getting emails from "Repeating Island" anymore.

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Maria Lima <lima at geneseo.edu>
Date: Wed, Apr 4, 2018 at 5:59 AM
Subject: Re: You should not have emailed this misinformation
To: LISA PARAVISINI-GEBERT <liparavisini at vassar.edu>
Cc: Ivette Romero <ivette.romero at marist.edu>

Dear Prof. Paravisini-Gebert:

We are definitely not friends -- there should have been a public apology
for the posting rather than a mere withdrawal.  Please remove me from your


On Tue, Apr 3, 2018 at 8:39 PM, LISA PARAVISINI-GEBERT <
liparavisini at vassar.edu> wrote:

> Dear Prof. Lima:
> Thank you for pointing this out to us. The post has been deleted and we
> very much appreciate the heads-up.
> In the future, however, as we are not friends, I would appreciate a more
> polite message. I found it discourteous and non-collegial.
> All the best,
> Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert
> On Tue, Apr 3, 2018 at 7:47 AM, Maria Lima <lima at geneseo.edu> wrote:
>> according to my friend Beth McCoy.
>> Can you look into this, please? And FIX IT.
>> Maria Helena Lima
>> Professor
>> Department of English
>> Comparative Literature Director
>> James and Julia Lockhart Professor, 2014-2017
>> ---------- Forwarded message ----------
>> From: Beth McCoy <mccoy at geneseo.edu>
>> Date: Tue, Apr 3, 2018 at 6:26 AM
>> Subject: NO NO NO NO [English-L] The Irish slave trade – the slaves that
>> time forgot
>> To: Maria Lima <lima at geneseo.edu>
>> Hi, Maria:
>> *Repeating Islands* should NOT have published this—this is a false
>> racist meme. Someone got played.
>> https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/may/16/facebook-
>> fake-news-tools-not-working
>> https://medium.com/@Limerick1914/the-racist-myth-within-a-ra
>> cist-myth-8eac2c890e92
>> And if you google “Christian Winthrop Newport RI” you will see that this
>> person is not at all a source to be trusted. christian winthrop newport
>> ri
>> <https://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=christian+winthrop+newport+ri&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8>
>> They need to recant this.
>> Beth
>> On Apr 2, 2018, at 11:51 PM, Maria Lima <lima at geneseo.edu> wrote:
>> lisaparavisini posted: " A report by Christian Winthrop for the Newport
>> Buzz. We’ve all been taught the horror’s of the African slave trade. It’s
>> in all the school books and in plenty of Hollywood movies. But for some
>> reason the largest group of slaves in the British Colonies "
>> Respond to this post by replying above this line
>> New post on *Repeating Islands*
>> <http://repeatingislands.com/author/lisaparavisini/> The Irish slave
>> trade – the slaves that time forgot
>> <http://repeatingislands.com/2018/04/02/the-irish-slave-trade-the-slaves-that-time-forgot/> by
>> lisaparavisini <http://repeatingislands.com/author/lisaparavisini/>
>> [image: Screen Shot 2018-04-02 at 10.56.28 PM.png]
>> A report by Christian Winthrop for the *Newport Buzz*.
>> <http://www.thenewportbuzz.com/the-irish-slave-trade-the-slaves-that-time-forgot/7191>
>> We’ve all been taught the horror’s of the African slave trade. It’s in
>> all the school books and in plenty of Hollywood movies. But for some reason
>> the largest group of slaves in the British Colonies in the 17th Century
>> doesn’t get mentioned at all:
>> *The Irish*
>> Most people have heard of the Great Famine, which reduced the population
>> of Ireland by around 25%. That pales in comparison to the disaster that
>> England inflicted upon Ireland between1641 and 1652, when the population of
>> Ireland fell from 1,466,000 to 616,000.
>> Then things got worse.
>> *What to do with the Irish?*
>> From the Tudor reconquest of Ireland until Irish Independence in 1921,
>> the English puzzled over the problem of what to do with all those Irish
>> people. They were the wrong religion. They spoke the wrong language. But
>> the big problem was that there were just too many of them.
>> The English had been practicing a slow genocide against the Irish since
>> Queen Elizabeth, but the Irish bred too fast and were tough to kill. On the
>> other side of the Atlantic, there was a chronic labor shortage (because the
>> local natives tended to die out too quickly in slavery conditions).
>> Putting two and two together, King James I started sending Irish slaves
>> to the new world. The first recorded sale of Irish slaves was to a
>> settlement in the Amazon in 1612, seven years before the first African
>> slaves arrived in Jamestown.
>> The Proclamation of 1625 by James II made it official policy that all
>> Irish political prisoners be transported to the West Indies and sold to
>> English planters. Soon Irish slaves were the majority of slaves in the
>> English colonies.
>> In 1629 a large group of Irish men and women were sent to Guiana, and by
>> 1632, Irish were the main slaves sold to Antigua and Montserrat in the West
>> Indies. By 1637 a census showed that 69% of the total population of
>> Montserrat were Irish slaves, which records show was a cause of concern to
>> the English planters. But there were not enough political prisoners to
>> supply the demand, so every petty infraction carried a sentence of
>> transporting, and slaver gangs combed the country sides to kidnap enough
>> people to fill out their quotas.
>> The slavers were so full of zest that they sometimes grabbed
>> non-Irishmen. On March 25, 1659, a petition was received in London claiming
>> that 72 Englishmen were wrongly sold as slaves in Barbados, along with 200
>> Frenchmen and 7-8,000 Scots.
>> [image: Irish Slaves Barbados]
>> So many Irish slaves were sent to Barbados, between 12,000 and 60,000,
>> that the term “barbadosed” began to be used. By the 1630’s, Ireland was the
>> primary source of the English slave trade.   And then disaster struck.
>> *Cromwell*
>> After Oliver Cromwell defeated the royalists in the English Civil War, he
>> turned to Ireland, who had allied themselves with the defeated royalists.
>> What happened next could be considered genocide.
>> The famine (caused by the English intentionally destroying foodstocks)
>> and plague that followed Cromwell’s massacres reduced the population of
>> Ireland to around 40%.
>> And then Cromwell got really nasty.
>> Anyone implicated in the rebellion had their land confiscated and was
>> sold into slavery in the West Indies. Even catholic landowners who hadn’t
>> taken part of the rebellion had their land confiscated. Catholicism was
>> outlawed and catholic priests were executed when found. To top it off, he
>> ordered the ethnic cleansing of Ireland east of Shannon in 1652. Soldiers
>> were encouraged to kill any Irish who refused to relocate.
>> Instead of trying to describe the horror, consider the words from the
>> English State Papers in 1742.
>> “In clearing the ground for the adventurers and soldiers (the English
>> capitalists of that day)… To be transported to Barbados and the English
>> plantations in America. It was a measure beneficial to Ireland, which
>> was thus relieved of a population that might trouble the planters; it was a
>> benefit to the people removed, which might thus be made English and
>> Christians … a great benefit to the West India sugar planters, who desired
>> men and boys for their bondsmen, and the women and Irish girls… To solace
>> them.”
>> I can’t help but notice that the exact same language and logic used to
>> justify enslavement of the blacks was used to justify enslavement of the
>> Irish. It is something for those who think slavery was simply a matter of
>> skin color to consider.  As for the Irish slaves, Cromwell specifically
>> targeted Irish children.
>> “During the 1650s, over 100,000 Irish children between the ages of 10 and
>> 14 were taken from their parents and sold as slaves in the West Indies,
>> Virginia and New England. In this decade, 52,000 Irish (mostly women and
>> children) were sold to Barbados and Virginia. Another 30,000 Irish men and
>> women were also transported and sold to the highest bidder. In 1656,
>> [Oliver] Cromwell ordered that 2000 Irish children be taken to Jamaica and
>> sold as slaves to English settlers.”
>> For some reason, history likes to call these Irish slaves as ‘indentured
>> servants’. As if they were somehow considered better than African slaves.
>> This can be considered an attempt at whitewashing the history of the Irish
>> slave trade.
>> There does exist indentured servitude where two parties sign a contract
>> for a limited amount of time. This is not what happened to the Irish from
>> 1625 onward. They were sold as slaves, pure and simple. In reality, they
>> were considered by some to be even lower than the blacks.
>> “…the African slave trade was just beginning during this same period,”
>> writes Martin. “It is well recorded that African slaves, not tainted with
>> the stain of the hated Catholic theology and more expensive to purchase,
>> were often treated far better than their Irish counterparts.”
>> African slaves were still relatively new, and were expensive to transport
>> such a long distance (50 sterling in the late 1600’s). Irish slaves on the
>> other hand, were relatively cheap in comparison (5 sterling).
>> If a planter whipped or branded or beat an Irish slave to death, it was
>> never a crime. A death was a monetary setback, but far cheaper than killing
>> a more expensive African. The English masters quickly began breeding the
>> Irish women for both their own personal pleasure and for greater profit.
>> Children of slaves were themselves slaves, which increased the size of the
>> master’s free workforce.
>> Because Irish slaves were so much cheaper, the loss of investment from
>> torturing and killing them was not considered an effective deterrent. In an
>> ironic twist, this caused some to recommend importing African slaves
>> instead for *humanitarian reasons*.
>> Colonel William Brayne wrote to English authorities in 1656 urging the
>> importation of Negro slaves on the grounds that, “as the planters would
>> have to pay much more for them, they would have an interest in preserving
>> their lives, which was wanting in the case of (Irish)….” many of whom, he
>> charged, were killed by overwork and cruel treatment. African Negroes cost
>> generally about 20 to 50 pounds Sterling, compared to 900 pounds of cotton
>> (about 5 pounds Sterling) for an Irish. They were also more durable in the
>> hot climate, and caused fewer problems. The biggest bonus with the Africans
>> though, was they were NOT Catholic, and any heathen pagan was better than
>> an Irish Papist.
>> It’s impossible to estimate the exact number of Irish sold into slavery
>> during this period. More Irish slaves were sold in the American colonies
>> between 1651 and 1660 than the entire free population of those colonies. In
>> fact, more Irish were sold as slaves in the America’s during the 17th
>> Century than Africans.
>> [image: White and black slaves]
>> The typical death rate on the slave ships was around 37%.  The Irish did
>> often have one advantage over African slaves – most of the time their time
>> in slavery was limited. They were often sold into slavery from 7 to 20
>> years, while the only way Africans could get out of slavery was to buy
>> their freedom.
>> Interesting historical note: the last person killed at the Salem Witch
>> Trials was Ann Glover. She and her husband had been shipped to Barbados as
>> a slave in the 1650’s. Her husband was killed there for refusing to
>> renounce catholicism.
>> In the 1680’s she was working as a housekeeper in Salem. After some of
>> the children she was caring for got sick she was accused of being a
>> witch. At the trial they demanded she say the Lord’s Prayer. She did so,
>> but in Gaelic, because she didn’t know English. She was then hung.
>> *lisaparavisini <http://repeatingislands.com/author/lisaparavisini/>* |
>> April 2, 2018 at 10:59 pm | Categories: News
>> <http://repeatingislands.com/category/news/> | URL:
>> https://wp.me/psnTa-zKB
>> Comment
>> <http://repeatingislands.com/2018/04/02/the-irish-slave-trade-the-slaves-that-time-forgot/#respond>
>>    See all comments
>> <http://repeatingislands.com/2018/04/02/the-irish-slave-trade-the-slaves-that-time-forgot/#comments>
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> --
> *A dream is just a dream. A goal is a dream with a plan and a deadline.--*Chinese
> fortune cookie
> Ivette Romero-Cesareo and I invite you to visit our blog, "Repeating
> Islands" at http://repeatingislands.com for news and commentary on
> Caribbean literatures and cultures.
> *Par Avis Sygno*
> Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert
> *Professor of Hispanic Studies on the Sarah Tod Fitz
> Randolph Distinguished Professor Chair*
> Vassar College
> Box 541
> Poughkeepsie, New York 12601
> 845 437-5611
> liparavisini at vassar.edu
> http://hispanicstudies.vassar.edu/bio_paravisini-gebert.html
> Website: http:// <http://blogs.vassar.edu/liparavisini/>
> lizabethparavisinigebert.com
> Please consider the environment before printing this email.
> *************************************************************************
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