[Blackstudies-l] Back When Sears Made Black Customers a Priority

Maria Lima lima at geneseo.edu
Wed Oct 24 06:21:47 EDT 2018


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> [image: Founded after the Civil War, the original Sears, Roebuck and
> Company developed a catalog business that sold the latest dresses, toys,
> build-it-yourself houses and even tombstones.]
>
> Founded after the Civil War, the original Sears, Roebuck and Company
> developed a catalog business that sold the latest dresses, toys,
> build-it-yourself houses and even tombstones. Sears, Roebuck & Company
> [image: Lauretta Charlton]
> Lauretta Charlton
> The relationship between capitalism, white supremacy and civil rights is a
> fascinating one marked by boycotts, sit-ins and bus rides. All of these
> activities are centered on access to money and markets.
> African-Americans who lived in the rural South during Jim Crow usually had
> to buy goods on credit from local white store owners, who would often gouge
> them. Then came the Sears catalog. It sold everything from clothes and
> furniture to cocaine
> <http://p.nytimes.com/email/re?location=pMJKdIFVI6pghfX2HXfSzxRpdoyDWYNWv/nD1XJkN0KueezdwhZb4qlWQXQN0NRVD9vWah+4EaQ87KxCX7HJ9MfBg6SiOwc6jClWVXm9b0MrnLU9FZGOMKTTWUmO5K2PXtsBslBjBK/usajmIuJXxv+A0/Z61Hu/B9ywL8YC38C2GMhl++hdizvKrWUfXAiGoF5tWK1xjmFCc4UxMKraD8WVH+UCKxaLZ3gbRTWZePU=&campaign_id=37&instance_id=4877&segment_id=6832&user_id=cd6a790a7df1c660fce5b8e60071e2fd&regi_id=76182586emc=edit_rr_20181019>.
> But it also gave black consumers access to goods at national prices. The
> enterprise was so successful, store owners would organize bonfires and burn
> the catalogs to avoid losing their black customers.
> This week, Sears filed for bankruptcy
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> after 132 years in business. Louis Hyman, an author and professor of
> history and consumerism at Cornell, wrote a compelling thread
> <http://p.nytimes.com/email/re?location=pMJKdIFVI6pehkIEQ5/wRhgtDWk+4Wya3BtxQojNOMqY+gOpKINkAWw515aVsP1n1fzg5em9YoRqEaxdEz5/Ow==&campaign_id=37&instance_id=4877&segment_id=6832&user_id=cd6a790a7df1c660fce5b8e60071e2fd&regi_id=76182586>
> on Twitter that explained how the Sears catalog empowered black consumers
> during Jim Crow. Mr. Hyman walked me through some of these ideas in the
> interview below, which has been edited.
> ________________
> *Your thread sort of positioned Sears as a radical commercial entity
> during Jim Crow. *
> A huge theme in my history of retail class is Jim Crow. Access for black
> people to competitive markets is pretty radical because a lot of the
> history of the relationship between black people and capitalism has been a
> monopoly relationship. Sears is not the story of would-be radicals trying
> to overthrow Jim Crow. It was about people trying to make some money, which
> is radical in a certain way, too.
> *It seems easy for Americans to forget this kind of history. Do you think
> that is why your posts on Twitter resonated?*
> I was really touched that so many black readers connected with this
> history. People were sharing their stories about their grandparents and the
> way in which they felt connected to people under Jim Crow. Obviously people
> recognize that being followed in a store today is not the same as Jim Crow,
> where if you step out of line or do the wrong thing you and your family
> could be murdered by the Ku Klux Klan. But I think the larger point is the
> exhaustion of having to deal with racist store owners, whether it’s the
> 1900s or 2018.
> *What is the equivalent of consumer empowerment for people of color today?
> *
> It’s tricky. The thing about Jim Crow is that it’s not about shopping,
> it’s about white supremacy. Not in the sense that we understand it today,
> but in a very transparent way. That’s the difference. I think today the
> feeling that you can be who you are and buy what you want was most clearly
> expressed through trans people who are able to buy what they want to wear,
> even if it doesn’t fit people’s expectations for their bodies.
> *Do your students think capitalism can be a form or empowerment for people
> of color?*
> All of my students feel like the ability to buy something is a pretty
> foundational right in our society. They’ll say, “Oh, maybe you people don’t
> have a right to a job, but I should have the ability to shop.” And when
> they see how that plays out in different ways for African-Americans, for
> women, gay people, it is pretty remarkable.
> *Are your students thinking about things like wealth distribution and
> race?*
> Of course! What I like about it is I get the future ibankers of tomorrow
> who are like, “we need to have more efficient markets that are neoliberal
> and are not discriminatory.” And then you get the students who are on the
> left who are like, “we need to have a basic income, and capitalism is
> racism and racism is the patriarchy.” I like to have those students in
> conversation because I feel like that’s the conversation we need to be
> having.
> *What kind of blowback did you get after your post?*
> People said that I argued capitalism is anti-racist, but that’s not true.
> All I’m saying is that in this one particular instance, this catalog helped
> some people in this way, and it’s an interesting way to understand the
> complexities of capitalism, particularly Jim Crow capitalism. It’s always
> surprising to me that white supremacy and consumer capitalism squared off.
> And in some small measure, white supremacy lost. And that’s really
> incredible because white supremacy was so powerful. It was this powerful
> organizing principle in American politics. That’s fascinating.
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> The anger is about what it means to be Native American, and who gets to
> decide.
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