[Blackstudies-l] Race/Related: How Much Do You Know About Slavery in America?

Maria Lima lima at geneseo.edu
Sat Aug 17 09:50:54 EDT 2019


The 1619 Project

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Saturday, August 17, 2019
More Race/Related »
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[image: Lauretta Charlton]
Lauretta Charlton
Harriet Tubman described it as “the next thing to hell.” Thomas Jefferson,
who like many founding fathers was a slaveowner, compared it to having a
wolf by the ear. Frederick Douglass, in his 1852 Independence Day speech,
called it the “shame of America.” John Brown, the abolitionist, said there
would “be no peace in this land” until it was done.
Slavery is called America’s original sin, but how many of us truly
understand the myriad ways it has shaped our lives and our country today?
The New York Times Magazine this week released a special issue dedicated to
the subject of slavery in America. The initiative, which was led by Nikole
Hannah-Jones, a staff writer at the magazine, is expansive. It tries to
show that, in America today, everything from the absence of universal
health care to our dependence on sugar — even traffic
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/vWipUUczXhD4qgIjZTS8WQ~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRfOmPhP0T2aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vaW50ZXJhY3RpdmUvMjAxOS8wOC8xNC9tYWdhemluZS90cmFmZmljLWF0bGFudGEtc2VncmVnYXRpb24uaHRtbD90ZT0xJm5sPXJhY2UtcmVsYXRlZCZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDE5MDgxNz9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0xMTcyMCZzZWdtZW50X2lkPTE2MjU0JnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzUmcmVnaV9pZD00Mjc0MDg5NzIwMTkwODE3VwNueXRCCgAo4d5XXTCMoLdSEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>
—
is in some way connected to slavery and its legacy.
Matthew Desmond, a professor of sociology at Princeton University, writes a
brilliant piece for the project in which he argues that the foundations of
America’s capitalist society “were developed by and for large plantations,”
where enslaved people were forced to provide free labor, often under
unspeakable conditions.
“It is not surprising that we can still feel the looming presence of this
institution, which helped turn a poor, fledgling nation into a financial
colossus,” Mr. Desmond writes.
Read an excerpt of Mr. Desmond’s essay below, and browse the full issue,
called The 1619 Project, here
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/TDrisoOXNPCyBis1BhfMhg~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRfOmPhP0TvaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vaW50ZXJhY3RpdmUvMjAxOS8wOC8xNC9tYWdhemluZS8xNjE5LWFtZXJpY2Etc2xhdmVyeS5odG1sP3RlPTEmbmw9cmFjZS1yZWxhdGVkJmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMTkwODE3P2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3Jmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTExNzIwJnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9MTYyNTQmdXNlcl9pZD0zOTM4ZjE3ZDgxODJhMjJmZGUxNDY3ZmY5ZDBiYjVjNSZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3MjAxOTA4MTdXA255dEIKACjh3lddMIygt1IQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>.
If you descended from enslaved Africans and would like to participate in
the project by sharing your family’s story, please do so here
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/irghmctMPsBnruqrunO6-A~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRfOmPhP4QCAWh0dHBzOi8vd3d3Lm55dGltZXMuY29tL2ludGVyYWN0aXZlLzIwMTkvMDgvMTQvbWFnYXppbmUvMThtYWctc2hhcmUteW91ci1mYW1pbHktc3Rvcmllcy1zbGF2ZXJ5Lmh0bWw_dGU9MSZubD1yYWNlLXJlbGF0ZWQmZW1jPWVkaXRfcnJfMjAxOTA4MTc_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9MTE3MjAmc2VnbWVudF9pZD0xNjI1NCZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1JnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcyMDE5MDgxN1cDbnl0QgoAKOHeV10wjKC3UhBsaW1hQGdlbmVzZW8uZWR1WAQAAAAA>,
or send us your thoughts at racerelated at nytimes.com.
American Capitalism Is Brutal. You Can Trace That to the Plantation.
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/K9iTaEWocJb46UFRnkgNDQ~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRfOmPhP4QPAWh0dHBzOi8vd3d3Lm55dGltZXMuY29tL2ludGVyYWN0aXZlLzIwMTkvMDgvMTQvbWFnYXppbmUvc2xhdmVyeS1jYXBpdGFsaXNtLmh0bWw_ZW1fcG9zPWxhcmdlJnJlZj1oZWFkbGluZSZ0ZT0xJm5sPXJhY2UtcmVsYXRlZCZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDE5MDgxNz9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0xMTcyMCZzZWdtZW50X2lkPTE2MjU0JnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzUmcmVnaV9pZD00Mjc0MDg5N2VkaXRfcnJfMjAxOTA4MTdXA255dEIKACjh3lddMIygt1IQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>
By MATTHEW DESMOND
[image: Women and children in a cotton field in the 1860s.]
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/1vLQMVhOmIE7DG5KNiWaUA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRfOmPhP4QKAWh0dHBzOi8vd3d3Lm55dGltZXMuY29tL2ludGVyYWN0aXZlLzIwMTkvMDgvMTQvbWFnYXppbmUvc2xhdmVyeS1jYXBpdGFsaXNtLmh0bWw_ZW1fcG9zPWxhcmdlJnJlZj1pbWcmdGU9MSZubD1yYWNlLXJlbGF0ZWQmZW1jPWVkaXRfcnJfMjAxOTA4MTc_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9MTE3MjAmc2VnbWVudF9pZD0xNjI1NCZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1JnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTdlZGl0X3JyXzIwMTkwODE3VwNueXRCCgAo4d5XXTCMoLdSEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>

Women and children in a cotton field in the 1860s. J. H. Aylsworth, via the
Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
*A couple of years *before he was convicted of securities fraud, Martin
Shkreli was the chief executive of a pharmaceutical company that acquired
the rights to Daraprim, a lifesaving antiparasitic drug. Previously the
drug cost $13.50 a pill, but in Shkreli’s hands, the price quickly
increased by a factor of 56, to $750 a pill. At a health care conference,
Shkreli told the audience that he should have raised the price even higher.
“No one wants to say it, no one’s proud of it,” he explained. “But this is
a capitalist society, a capitalist system and capitalist rules.”
This is a capitalist society. It’s a fatalistic mantra that seems to get
repeated to anyone who questions why America can’t be more fair or equal.
But around the world, there are many types of capitalist societies, ranging
from liberating to exploitative, protective to abusive, democratic to
unregulated. When Americans declare that “we live in a capitalist society”
— as a real estate mogul told The Miami Herald last year
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/lvrFFtqJsDxuoDHs5A966A~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRfOmPhP0ThaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubWlhbWloZXJhbGQuY29tL25ld3MvYnVzaW5lc3MvcmVhbC1lc3RhdGUtbmV3cy9hcnRpY2xlMjE1OTEzMTMwLmh0bWw_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9MTE3MjAmc2VnbWVudF9pZD0xNjI1NCZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1JnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmbmw9cmFjZS9yZWxhdGVkJmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMTkwODE3VwNueXRCCgAo4d5XXTCMoLdSEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>when
explaining his feelings about small-business owners being evicted from
their Little Haiti storefronts — what they’re often defending is our
nation’s peculiarly brutal economy. “Low-road capitalism,” the University
of Wisconsin-Madison sociologist Joel Rogers has called it. In a capitalist
society that goes low, wages are depressed as businesses compete over the
price, not the quality, of goods; so-called unskilled workers are typically
incentivized through punishments, not promotions; inequality reigns and
poverty spreads. In the United States, the richest 1 percent of Americans
own 40 percent of the country’s wealth, while a larger share of working-age
people (18-65) live in poverty
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/c7cw9WWfXDwrx18cJ8Xb6w~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRfOmPhP0TCaHR0cHM6Ly9kYXRhLm9lY2Qub3JnL2luZXF1YWxpdHkvcG92ZXJ0eS1yYXRlLmh0bT9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0xMTcyMCZzZWdtZW50X2lkPTE2MjU0JnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzUmcmVnaV9pZD00Mjc0MDg5NyZubD1yYWNlL3JlbGF0ZWQmZW1jPWVkaXRfcnJfMjAxOTA4MTdXA255dEIKACjh3lddMIygt1IQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>
than
in any other nation belonging to the Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development (O.E.C.D.).
Or consider worker rights in different capitalist nations. In Iceland, 90
percent of wage and salaried workers belong to trade unions authorized to
fight for living wages and fair working conditions. Thirty-four percent of
Italian workers are unionized, as are 26 percent of Canadian workers. Only
10 percent of American wage and salaried workers carry union cards. The
O.E.C.D. scores nations
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/m3M35Si7xyrUNJUULa9Hgw~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRfOmPhP0TYaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cxLmNvbXBhcmV5b3VyY291bnRyeS5vcmcvY29sbGVjdGl2ZS1iYXJnYWluaW5nL2VuLzAvcmFua2luZy8_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9MTE3MjAmc2VnbWVudF9pZD0xNjI1NCZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1JnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmbmw9cmFjZS9yZWxhdGVkJmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMTkwODE3VwNueXRCCgAo4d5XXTCMoLdSEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>
along
a number of indicators, such as how countries regulate temporary work
arrangements. Scores run from 5 (“very strict”) to 1 (“very loose”). Brazil
scores 4.1 and Thailand, 3.7, signaling toothy regulations on temp work.
Further down the list are Norway (3.4), India (2.5) and Japan (1.3). The
United States scored 0.3, tied for second to last place with Malaysia. How
easy is it to fire workers? Countries like Indonesia (4.1) and Portugal (3)
have strong rules about severance pay and reasons for dismissal. Those
rules relax somewhat in places like Denmark (2.1) and Mexico (1.9). They
virtually disappear in the United States, ranked dead last out of 71
nations with a score of 0.5.
*[To continue reading this story, click here
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Why
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NICHOLAS KULISH AND MIKE MCINTIRE

Newly unearthed documents reveal how an environmental-minded socialite
became an ardent nativist whose money helped sow the seeds of the Trump
anti-immigration agenda.
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the Country’s New Poet Laureate, Poems Reclaiming Tribal Culture
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DAISY FRIED

In “An American Sunrise,” Joy Harjo draws on her Muscogee Creek heritage to
celebrate indigenous traditions and to mourn their passing.
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