[Blackstudies-l] The Chicago Defender Prints Its Last Copy

Maria Lima lima at geneseo.edu
Fri Jul 19 10:52:46 EDT 2019


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The loss will be felt for generations.

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[image: The New York Times]
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Wednesday, July 10, 2019
More Race/Related »
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[image: Lauretta Charlton]
Lauretta Charlton
It’s hard to overstate the importance of the legendary black newspaper The
Chicago Defender.
It reported on the lives of African-Americans when most newspapers did not
consider them newsworthy. It challenged Jim Crow. It published the likes of
Langston Hughes and Gwendolyn Brooks. It documented the Great Migration,
the subject of some of my favorite paintings
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by Jacob Lawrence.
L. Alex Wilson, an editor, was beaten and hit with a brick
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in Little Rock while covering the civil rights movement in 1957. He never
fully recovered from his injuries, and died at 51. He is one of the many
heroic journalists who worked for The Defender.
This week, the paper, founded in 1905 by Robert Sengstacke Abbott, printed
its final copy. It will remain online, but the loss, written about in
detail below, still stings. If you have memories of reading The Chicago
Defender, please share them with us at racerelated at nytimes.com.
The Chicago Defender, Legendary Black Newspaper, Prints Last Copy
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By MONICA DAVEY AND JOHN ELIGON
[image: A newsboy selling The Chicago Defender in 1942. The newspaper is
suspending its print operations, though the digital operation continues.]
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A newsboy selling The Chicago Defender in 1942. The newspaper is suspending
its print operations, though the digital operation continues. Jack
Delano/Farm Security Administration, via Library of Congress
CHICAGO — Decade by decade, the newspaper told the story of black life in
America. It took note of births and deaths, of graduations and weddings, of
everything in between. Through eras of angst, its reporters dug into
painful, dangerous stories, relaying grim details of lynchings, of clashes
over school integration and of the shootings of black men by white police
officers. Among a long list of distinguished bylines: Langston Hughes and
Gwendolyn Brooks.
After more than a century, The Chicago Defender will cease its print
editions after Wednesday, the newspaper’s owner has announced. The Defender
will continue its digital operation, according to Hiram E. Jackson, chief
executive of Real Times Media, which owns The Defender and other black
newspapers around the country. He said the move would allow the news
organization to adapt to a fast-changing, highly challenging media
environment that has upended the entire newspaper industry.
“It is an economic decision,” Mr. Jackson said, “but it’s more an effort to
make sure that The Defender has another 100 years.”
Still, the demise of The Chicago Defender’s print editions represented a
painful passage for many people who grew up in Chicago and for those with
memories of its influence far beyond this city. Of its many significant
effects over many years, The Defender told of economic success in the
North, and was seen as a catalyst in the migration of hundreds of thousands
of black Americans from the South.
[image: The Defender's coverage of Emmett Till's funeral included a full
page of photos.]
The Defender's coverage of Emmett Till's funeral included a full page of
photos.
Chicago Defender
In Chicago, it was a constant, on newsstands in African-American
neighborhoods and on kitchen tables in African-American homes.
“As a kid, you always knew about The Defender,” said Glenn Reedus, a former
editor of the newspaper. “It was at everybody’s house. It was at the
barber’s. It was everywhere, South Side or West Side. There was a joke that
if someone said something had happened and someone else said it hadn’t, you
knew it didn’t happen if it wasn’t in The Defender.”
The Defender delivered news of monumental events — the funeral of Emmett
Till, the death of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., the election of
Barack Obama — but also of everyday life for black Americans, the Rev.
Jesse Jackson said.
“We never saw ourselves listed other places in weddings, funerals,
debutantes, so this became a real frame of reference for activities,” Mr.
Jackson said. “My career would not be what it is today if not for The
Defender.”
The nation’s black press, including The Defender, was in some ways born out
of necessity, providing an outlet for black people at a time when there was
no other platform for them. The first black newspaper, Freedom’s Journal,
was created in 1827 and argued for the abolition of slavery. By some
estimates, more than 500 black-owned newspapers emerged in the three
decades after the end of the Civil War in 1865, according to a report on
the black press
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commissioned by the Democracy Fund.
Not only did black-run media counter negative stereotypes of
African-Americans that were pervasive in mainstream outlets, it was also a
very influential advocating force for black communities. It exposed the
terrors of lynching.
The National Newspaper Publishers Association, a trade organization for
African-American-owned newspapers, said it currently counts 218 such
publications across 40 states that attract 22.2 million readers between
print and online each week.
[image: The Defender's front page from January 6, 1966, when the Rev. Dr.
Martin Luther King Jr. visited to announce plans for the Chicago Freedom
Movement.]
The Defender's front page from January 6, 1966, when the Rev. Dr. Martin
Luther King Jr. visited to announce plans for the Chicago Freedom Movement.
Chicago Defender
Although the country may look different now, the enduring challenges of
racism make the black press just as essential now, said Benjamin Chavis
Jr., the president and chief executive of the association.
“As long as racism is still a problem, you’re going to need the press from
multiple sources, including the black press,” he said.
Dr. Chavis estimated that print newspapers still accounted for about 60
percent of the readership of the black press. That figure, to some,
highlights the challenges that these legacy news media organizations face.
“The influence today is definitely waning,” said Angela Ford, the founder
and executive director of the Obsidian Collection, an archive for black
media that wrote the Democracy Fund report. “The world has changed so much
with the internet and social media. The black press hasn’t been as nimble
as technology itself. We’ve got to catch up.”
Ms. Ford, 55, grew up on the South Side of Chicago and fondly remembered
how a copy of The Defender was always within arm’s reach. It was an
essential publication for a black girl coming up, she said, because of the
empowering image it represented of black people.
“It’s very difficult to put something on the coffee table that’s not an
insult to the black community,” she said. “By surrendering the black voice,
we surrendered our own positivity.”
The Chicago Defender will find the competition for online readers to be
intense.
*[ Read our book review of “The Defender,” a compelling history of the
trailblazing newspaper
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]*
The Root, a leading African-American-focused online publication, hit
traffic records in January with 20 million unique visitors, said Danielle
C. Belton, the editor in chief. Much of that traffic was because of the
release of “Surviving R. Kelly,” a documentary about accusations of sexual
misconduct against the R&B musician, and the controversy surrounding an
encounter between a group of mostly white Catholic schoolboys and a Native
American drummer at the Lincoln Memorial.
Even as many mainstream news organizations boast increasingly diverse
staffs and cover major issues important to black communities, the tone and
framing in the black press sets it apart, its many fans say. While some
news stories related to African-Americans may get buried inside mainstream
newspapers, they can be front-page news for black publications. The black
press may also be able to speak in a way that’s more familiar to
African-Americans, journalists in the industry said.
“This is a place where you can let your hair down and be yourself,” Ms.
Belton said.
In 1905, Robert Sengstacke Abbott started The Chicago Defender in a
landlord’s kitchen. In the years that followed, the newspaper’s reputation
reached far beyond Chicago, in part with the help from Pullman railway
porters who carried copies of the newspaper with them and spread the
editions along their routes. The newspaper tackled issues of race head on,
editorializing against Jim Crow laws, advocating equity for
African-Americans in the military, and becoming an essential outlet for any
politician who hoped to win black voters.
The Chicago Defender was able to survive “without conforming to the white
press’s notions about separating objective news from subjective
editorials,” wrote Gene Roberts and Hank Klibanoff in their Pulitzer
Prize-winning book, “The Race Beat.”
“During racial confrontations, The Defender would design, for the front
page, box scores showing how many Negroes had been injured and killed
versus whites,” they wrote.
The Defender left another legacy in Chicago: a parade that runs through the
South Side
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each year at the end of summer, named for Bud Billiken, a fictional
character created in the 1920s as part of a section of the newspaper for
young people.
“No newspaper played a greater role in shaping American politics and
demographics during the 20th century,” said Ethan Michaeli, who worked at
The Defender and wrote a book
<http://nyt.et.e.sparkpost.com/f/a/09b_7hjQVT5bLgfTa5UCyg~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRfCO_8P0TxaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAxNi8wMS8xMC9ib29rcy9yZXZpZXcvdGhlLWRlZmVuZGVyLWJ5LWV0aGFuLW1pY2hhZWxpLmh0bWw_dGU9MSZubD1yYWNlLXJlbGF0ZWQmZW1jPWVkaXRfcnJfMjAxOTA3MTA_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9MTA4MjEmc2VnbWVudF9pZD0xNTA5MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1JnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcyMDE5MDcxMFcDbnl0QgoAHvxqJl3QOAqlUhBsaW1hQGdlbmVzZW8uZWR1WAQAAAAA>,
“The Defender: How the Legendary Black Newspaper Changed America, From the
Age of the Pullman Porters to the Age of Obama.”
[image: The Rev. Jesse Jackson was featured in the paper's penultimate
print edition.]
The Rev. Jesse Jackson was featured in the paper's penultimate print
edition.
Chicago Defender
In recent years, though, The Defender has struggled, contending with the
pressures that have rippled through the newspaper business — declining
print advertising and readers turning to the internet.
Black news organizations must still battle negative stereotypes in vying
for advertising dollars, said Jean Boone, the publisher of the Richmond
Free Press in Virginia, an African-American publication started by her
husband in 1992.
A local upscale clothing retailer once told her that he would see if he had
any money in his miscellaneous budget to place an ad in her paper, she
said. A car dealer told one of her sales representatives, who was white,
that they were not interested in buying an ad because black people would
come to them to shop anyway.
“We’re an afterthought,” said Ms. Boone, whose publication has a weekly
circulation of 35,000 and draws around 130,000 readers each week.
Regardless of the financial challenges, Ms. Boone said her publication had
no intention of going the way of The Defender and eliminating its print
edition.
The newspaper repaid all of its initial investors within five years of
launching, she said, and it has never missed a payroll. Her family owns a
controlling share of the paper and it owns the building in which it is
housed. She sees the paper as a political influencer: All of the candidates
it endorsed in last year’s midterm elections won.
“We’re a miracle,” she said. “We are a miracle and most black newspapers
are a miracle.”
Until now, some 16,000 copies of The Defender were printed each week,
according to Mr. Jackson of Real Times Media, who added that the newspaper
has far more readers online. Officials would not provide specifics about
the newspaper’s financial circumstances or say how many employees now work
at the newspaper’s office on Chicago’s South Side.
In 2015, only 10 full-time employees were left, including one staff
reporter.
Mr. Jackson said no staff members would be cut as the print edition ends.
Instead, he said, existing employees would turn to improving news coverage for
their website
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and social media accounts, as well as expanded efforts to hold
newspaper-sponsored events and to interest readers in the newspaper’s vast
archives.
“We’re nervous but we’re really excited about this,” Mr. Jackson said. “The
Chicago Defender is known for the impact it’s had. The only way we can be
impactful is to have a huge audience. You can’t do that with printed
newspapers.”
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James
Monroe Enslaved Hundreds. Their Descendants Still Live Next Door.
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By
AUDRA D. S. BURCH AND MIRANDA BARNES

A small African-American community has existed less than 10 miles from the
president’s former plantation for generations. Only recently has the full
extent of their relationship been revealed.
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Detroit
Festival Backtracks After Charging White People Double
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By
DERRICK BRYSON TAYLOR

Afrofuture Fest initially planned to charge people of color $20 and
“non-POC” $40. By Sunday evening, it announced a general admission fee of
$20 for all.
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Woman
Required to Cover Up on American Airlines Flight Says Race Was a Factor
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By
NEIL VIGDOR

Dr. Tisha Rowe was about to fly from Jamaica to Miami when a flight
attendant briefly removed her from the plane because of her romper, she
said.
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