[Blackstudies-l] A Debate Over Identity and Race Asks, Are African-Americans ‘Black’ or ‘black’?

Maria Lima lima at geneseo.edu
Sat Jun 27 10:37:21 EDT 2020


My father, Earle M. Lacey, was born a Negro. Then he was black. Late in
life, much to his discomfort
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June 27, 2020
[image: Author Headshot]
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By Marc Lacey
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The New York Times

My father was born a Negro. Then he was black. Late in life, much to his
discomfort, he became an African-American.

Everyone in this country who traces their ancestors back to Africa has
experienced a panoply of racial identifiers over their lives, with some
terms imposed and others embraced. In the course of a single day in 2020, I
might be called black, African-American or a person of color. I’m also
labeled, in a way that makes my brown skin crawl, as diverse, ethnic or a
minority.
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Amid the nation’s reckoning with racism following the death of George
Floyd, another name is being widely adopted: Black with a capital B.

John Eligon, a New York Times national correspondent who writes about race,
captures the discussion in the piece below. As he notes, each name change
brings spirited discussion. Isn’t black a color, not a race? If one
capitalizes Black should one also capitalize White? And Brown? Please share
your views down below.

As one who works in words I would never suggest that word choice does not
matter. Words can affect the thinking of both those who write them and
those who read them. So I am in favor of pushing the shift key — but I
doubt it will be the last time we edit what people like me are called.

[Read John Eligon’s article about the debate over identity and race.
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/XWpPBMolnRz24d-1FUenqw~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRg2avNP0TmaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMC8wNi8yNi91cy9ibGFjay1hZnJpY2FuLWFtZXJpY2FuLXN0eWxlLWRlYmF0ZS5odG1sP2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3JmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMjAwNjI3Jmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTE5ODA2Jm5sPXJhY2UlMkZyZWxhdGVkJnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmc2VnbWVudF9pZD0zMjAyMiZ0ZT0xJnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzVXA255dEIKABzNJvdecmpmRFIQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>
]
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‘I’ve never led a protest before. But this movement lit a fire in me.’
Zee Thomas, 15, with her co-organizers in Nashville. From left (top row):
Ms. Thomas, Nya Collins, Emma Rose Smith, Mikayla Smith. Bottom: Kennedy
Green, left, and Jade Fuller.Yasmine Malone for The New York Times

Teen girls have long been at the forefront of social progress. Think Malala
Yousafzai, Emma González or Greta Thunberg.

So have black women. It was three black women — Patrisse Khan-Cullors,
Alicia Garza and Opal Tometi — who founded the Black Lives Matter
organization. Black women led early movements for voting rights and have
organized some of the most successful campaigns for civil rights.

Like legions of black women before them, these four young activists
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are building a better tomorrow.

By Zoom from their homes (and in a series of follow-ups), The New York
Times spoke with them about racial justice, youth activism and what they
hope for the future.

[Read how these teens are fighting for a more just future
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.]
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What Is Owed to Black Americans
A civil rights rally in Atlanta in 1973.

If true justice and equality are ever to be achieved in the United States,
the country must finally take seriously what it owes black Americans, writes
Nikole Hannah-Jones
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for The New York Times Magazine.

Here is an excerpt on the need for reparations:

In 2018, Duke University’s Samuel DuBois Cook Center on Social Equity and
the Insight Center for Community Economic Development published a report
called “What We Get Wrong About Closing the Racial Wealth Gap”
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that examined the common misperceptions about the causes of the racial
wealth gap and presented data and social-science research that refutes them
all.
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The study shows that the racial wealth gap is not about poverty. Poor white
families earning less than $27,000 a year hold nearly the same amount of
wealth as black families earning between $48,000 and $76,000 annually. It’s
not because of black spending habits. Black Americans have lower incomes
over all but save at a slightly higher rate than white Americans with
similar incomes. It’s not that black people need to value education more.
Black parents, when controlling for household type and socioeconomic
status, actually offer more financial support for their children’s higher
education than white parents do, according to the study. And some studies
have shown that black youths, when compared with white youths whose parents
have similar incomes and education levels, are actually more likely to go
to college and earn additional credentials.

But probably most astounding to many Americans is that college simply does
not pay off for black Americans the way it does for other groups. Black
college graduates are about as likely to be unemployed as white Americans
with a high school diploma, and black Americans with a college education
hold less wealth than white Americans who have not even completed high
school. Further, because black families hold almost no wealth to begin
with, black students are the most likely to borrow money to pay for college
and then to borrow more. That debt, in turn, means that black students
cannot start saving immediately upon graduation like their
less-debt-burdened peers.

It’s not a lack of homeownership. While it’s true that black Americans have
the lowest homeownership rates in the nation, simply owning a home is not
the same asset that it is for white Americans. Black Americans get higher
mortgage rates even with equal credit worthiness, and homes in black
neighborhoods do not appreciate at the same rate as those in white areas,
because housing prices are still driven by the racial makeup of
communities. As the Duke University economist William Darity Jr., the
study’s lead author, points out, the ability to purchase a home in the
first place is seldom a result of just the hard work and frugality of the
buyer. “It’s actually parental and grandparental wealth that facilitates
the acquisition of a home.”

It’s not because a majority of black families are led by a single mother.
White single women with children hold the same amount of wealth as single
black women with no children, and the typical white single parent has twice
the wealth of the typical two-parent black family.

To summarize, none of the actions we are told black people must take if
they want to “lift themselves” out of poverty and gain financial stability
— not marrying, not getting educated, not saving more, not owning a home —
can mitigate 400 years of racialized plundering. Wealth begets wealth, and
white Americans have had centuries of government assistance to accumulate
wealth, while the government has for the vast history of this country
worked against black Americans doing the same.

Read the entire essay here
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.
How Facebook is undermining Black Lives Matter

Social media giants like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube have come out in
support of Black Lives Matter and its mission. On this episode of “The
Daily,”
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we explore whether their platforms are compromising the cause.

EDITOR’S PICKS

We publish many articles that touch on race. Here are several you shouldn’t
miss.
[image: Article Image]

Shawn Hubler/The New York Times
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/R7iFpoSyjZBQco9ct0FWxA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRg2avNP0TXaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMC8wNi8yNi91cy9jb3JvbmEtdmlydXMtbGF0aW5vcy5odG1sP2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3JmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMjAwNjI3Jmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTE5ODA2Jm5sPXJhY2UlMkZyZWxhdGVkJnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmc2VnbWVudF9pZD0zMjAyMiZ0ZT0xJnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzVXA255dEIKABzNJvdecmpmRFIQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>
  Many Latinos Couldn’t Stay Home. Now Virus Cases Are Soaring in Their
Communities.

Rates of coronavirus infection among Latinos have risen rapidly across the
United States.

By Shawn Hubler, Thomas Fuller, Anjali Singhvi and Juliette Love
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/R7iFpoSyjZBQco9ct0FWxA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRg2avNP0TXaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMC8wNi8yNi91cy9jb3JvbmEtdmlydXMtbGF0aW5vcy5odG1sP2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3JmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMjAwNjI3Jmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTE5ODA2Jm5sPXJhY2UlMkZyZWxhdGVkJnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmc2VnbWVudF9pZD0zMjAyMiZ0ZT0xJnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzVXA255dEIKABzNJvdecmpmRFIQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>
[image: Article Image]

Getty Images
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/l2N3VGNLfhzhzMA9WhMTbA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRg2avNP0TTaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMC8wNi8yNS9idXNpbmVzcy9iYWlsLWZ1bmRzLmh0bWw_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmZW1jPWVkaXRfcnJfMjAyMDA2MjcmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9MTk4MDYmbmw9cmFjZSUyRnJlbGF0ZWQmcmVnaV9pZD00Mjc0MDg5NyZzZWdtZW50X2lkPTMyMDIyJnRlPTEmdXNlcl9pZD0zOTM4ZjE3ZDgxODJhMjJmZGUxNDY3ZmY5ZDBiYjVjNVcDbnl0QgoAHM0m915yamZEUhBsaW1hQGdlbmVzZW8uZWR1WAQAAAAA>
  Bail Funds, Flush With Cash, Learn to ‘Grind Through This Horrible
Process’

Donors have given more than $90 million to help buy the freedom of those
awaiting trial behind bars.

By Nicholas Kulish
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/l2N3VGNLfhzhzMA9WhMTbA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRg2avNP0TTaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMC8wNi8yNS9idXNpbmVzcy9iYWlsLWZ1bmRzLmh0bWw_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmZW1jPWVkaXRfcnJfMjAyMDA2MjcmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9MTk4MDYmbmw9cmFjZSUyRnJlbGF0ZWQmcmVnaV9pZD00Mjc0MDg5NyZzZWdtZW50X2lkPTMyMDIyJnRlPTEmdXNlcl9pZD0zOTM4ZjE3ZDgxODJhMjJmZGUxNDY3ZmY5ZDBiYjVjNVcDbnl0QgoAHM0m915yamZEUhBsaW1hQGdlbmVzZW8uZWR1WAQAAAAA>
[image: Article Image]

Chris Graythen/Getty Images
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/UB7L-Pg0ZMqpimnhahtxbQ~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRg2avNP0TjaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMC8wNi8yNi9zcG9ydHMvYXV0b3JhY2luZy9uYXNjYXItYmxhY2stZmFucy5odG1sP2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3JmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMjAwNjI3Jmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTE5ODA2Jm5sPXJhY2UlMkZyZWxhdGVkJnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmc2VnbWVudF9pZD0zMjAyMiZ0ZT0xJnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzVXA255dEIKABzNJvdecmpmRFIQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>
  For Black NASCAR Fans, Change Would Mean Feeling at Ease at a Race

NASCAR’s decision to ban the Confederate battle flag has stirred
conversations about attracting new fans. In some ways, that has overlooked
the experiences of black fans already committed to the sport.

By Andrew Keh
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/UB7L-Pg0ZMqpimnhahtxbQ~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRg2avNP0TjaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMC8wNi8yNi9zcG9ydHMvYXV0b3JhY2luZy9uYXNjYXItYmxhY2stZmFucy5odG1sP2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3JmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMjAwNjI3Jmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTE5ODA2Jm5sPXJhY2UlMkZyZWxhdGVkJnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmc2VnbWVudF9pZD0zMjAyMiZ0ZT0xJnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzVXA255dEIKABzNJvdecmpmRFIQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>
[image: Article Image]

Alexa Welch Edlund/Richmond Times-Dispatch, via Associated Press
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/luhynPirl9y5wZg_p3sKmw~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRg2avNP0TpaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMC8wNi8yNS91cy9oaXN0b3JpYy1zdGF0dWVzLW1vbnVtZW50cy1kZXNjZW5kYW50cy5odG1sP2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3JmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMjAwNjI3Jmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTE5ODA2Jm5sPXJhY2UlMkZyZWxhdGVkJnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmc2VnbWVudF9pZD0zMjAyMiZ0ZT0xJnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzVXA255dEIKABzNJvdecmpmRFIQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>
  When the Toppled Statue Is of Your Great-Great-Great-Grandfather

Descendants of Robert E. Lee and others whose statues are coming down are
confronting this moment’s reassessment of history in a very personal way.

By Lucy Tompkins and Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/luhynPirl9y5wZg_p3sKmw~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRg2avNP0TpaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMC8wNi8yNS91cy9oaXN0b3JpYy1zdGF0dWVzLW1vbnVtZW50cy1kZXNjZW5kYW50cy5odG1sP2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3JmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMjAwNjI3Jmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTE5ODA2Jm5sPXJhY2UlMkZyZWxhdGVkJnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmc2VnbWVudF9pZD0zMjAyMiZ0ZT0xJnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzVXA255dEIKABzNJvdecmpmRFIQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>
[image: Article Image]

Amit Dave/Reuters
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/GxOUfYTiry_8o-_gkx9HhA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRg2avNP0TpaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMC8wNi8yNS9idXNpbmVzcy91bmlsZXZlci1qai1za2luLWNhcmUtbGlnaHRlbmluZy5odG1sP2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3JmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMjAwNjI3Jmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTE5ODA2Jm5sPXJhY2UlMkZyZWxhdGVkJnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmc2VnbWVudF9pZD0zMjAyMiZ0ZT0xJnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzVXA255dEIKABzNJvdecmpmRFIQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>
  Criticism of Skin Lighteners Brings Retreat by Unilever and Johnson &
Johnson

The companies have responded to a new wave of criticism calling beauty
products that advocate lighter skin discriminatory.

By Priya Arora and Sapna Maheshwari
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/GxOUfYTiry_8o-_gkx9HhA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRg2avNP0TpaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMC8wNi8yNS9idXNpbmVzcy91bmlsZXZlci1qai1za2luLWNhcmUtbGlnaHRlbmluZy5odG1sP2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3JmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMjAwNjI3Jmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTE5ODA2Jm5sPXJhY2UlMkZyZWxhdGVkJnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmc2VnbWVudF9pZD0zMjAyMiZ0ZT0xJnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzVXA255dEIKABzNJvdecmpmRFIQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>
[image: Article Image]

Josh Galemore/Arizona Daily Star, via Associated Press
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/HgU4uiZr5QoSRbB3jO9AvQ~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRg2avNP0TqaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMC8wNi8yNC91cy90dWNzb24tcG9saWNlLWNhcmxvcy1pbmdyYW0tbG9wZXotZGVhdGguaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIwMDYyNyZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0xOTgwNiZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9MzIwMjImdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCgAczSb3XnJqZkRSEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>
  Tucson Police in Turmoil After Death of Latino Man in Custody

The police chief of Tucson, Ariz., offered to step down after the release
of a video depicting the death of a handcuffed man. Three officers involved
have already resigned.

By Simon Romero
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/HgU4uiZr5QoSRbB3jO9AvQ~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRg2avNP0TqaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMC8wNi8yNC91cy90dWNzb24tcG9saWNlLWNhcmxvcy1pbmdyYW0tbG9wZXotZGVhdGguaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIwMDYyNyZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0xOTgwNiZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9MzIwMjImdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCgAczSb3XnJqZkRSEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>
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