[Blackstudies-l] Black experience in the US military

Maria Helena Lima lima at geneseo.edu
Sat Aug 21 10:32:46 EDT 2021


---------- Forwarded message ---------
From: Abdul Alkalimat <mcworter at illinois.edu>
Date: Thu, Aug 19, 2021 at 3:08 PM
Subject: Black experience in the US military
To: <abdulslist at lists.illinois.edu>



*Why fight? Racism versus Patriotism in the US Military *

*Current situation*
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-military-civilrights-exclusive/exclusive-long-withheld-pentagon-survey-shows-widespread-racial-discrimination-harassment-idUSKBN29J1N1
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-military-civilrights-exclusive/exclusive-long-withheld-pentagon-survey-shows-widespread-racial-discrimination-harassment-idUSKBN29J1N1__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbiqFgla-$>
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwj14LSprbjyAhXFB50JHZSDAgsQFnoECAkQAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fmedia.defense.gov%2F2020%2FDec%2F18%2F2002554852%2F-1%2F-1%2F0%2FDOD-DIVERSITY-AND-INCLUSION-FINAL-BOARD-REPORT.PDF&usg=AOvVaw26tModS0P8RiyBN6oipXIM
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwj14LSprbjyAhXFB50JHZSDAgsQFnoECAkQAQ&url=https*3A*2F*2Fmedia.defense.gov*2F2020*2FDec*2F18*2F2002554852*2F-1*2F-1*2F0*2FDOD-DIVERSITY-AND-INCLUSION-FINAL-BOARD-REPORT.PDF&usg=AOvVaw26tModS0P8RiyBN6oipXIM__;JSUlJSUlJSUlJSU!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_Rfbo8AxmSt$>
https://www.pbs.org/newshour/nation/ap-report-deep-rooted-racism-and-discrimination-permeate-u-s-military
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.pbs.org/newshour/nation/ap-report-deep-rooted-racism-and-discrimination-permeate-u-s-military__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbhYZebEc$>

*Leadership*
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0SbF9jrYo8
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0SbF9jrYo8__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbhrHd393$>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pZoafbp7jxc
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pZoafbp7jxc__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbiPGtGIq$>
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colin_Powell
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colin_Powell__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_Rfbqqt81nQ$>
https://usveteransmagazine.com/2020/03/four-star-general-nominated-african-american-chief-air-force/
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://usveteransmagazine.com/2020/03/four-star-general-nominated-african-american-chief-air-force/__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbggGPR_8$>
https://www.ajc.com/news/remembering-benjamin-o-davis-jr-the-first-black-air-force-general/7SWQ4K3VUNBDVMWB4NLYXQNY6I/
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.ajc.com/news/remembering-benjamin-o-davis-jr-the-first-black-air-force-general/7SWQ4K3VUNBDVMWB4NLYXQNY6I/__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbkcastEw$>

*Heroes/Sheroes*
https://blog.theveteranssite.greatergood.com/black-american-moh/
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://blog.theveteranssite.greatergood.com/black-american-moh/__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbhZDt90j$>
https://www.history.com/news/black-heroes-us-military-history
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.history.com/news/black-heroes-us-military-history__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_Rfbl-xbegD$>
https://www.military.com/video/forces/tribute/african-americans-in-military-history-breaking-barriers/5721627690001
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.military.com/video/forces/tribute/african-americans-in-military-history-breaking-barriers/5721627690001__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbsL_ZdHH$>

*Black Veterans*
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwjm-83m67ryAhVNa80KHTavDkUQFnoECAIQAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.va.gov%2FADVISORY%2FReports%2FReportMinVetSep2020.pdf&usg=AOvVaw0EcLFDjfiRBJ0L8V-xSKpY
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwjm-83m67ryAhVNa80KHTavDkUQFnoECAIQAQ&url=https*3A*2F*2Fwww.va.gov*2FADVISORY*2FReports*2FReportMinVetSep2020.pdf&usg=AOvVaw0EcLFDjfiRBJ0L8V-xSKpY__;JSUlJSUl!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbvsSumDC$>
https://bvsj.org/
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://bvsj.org/__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_Rfbt0CFKcy$>
https://www.militaryconsumer.gov/content/national-association-black-veterans-inc-nabvets
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.militaryconsumer.gov/content/national-association-black-veterans-inc-nabvets__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbsBulcxW$>
https://www.blackveteransproject.org/
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.blackveteransproject.org/__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_Rfbrzj_jSt$>

*Crispus Attucks*
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=72AU81SifDg
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=72AU81SifDg__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfboePPa-k$>
https://www.c-span.org/video/?469822-1/crispus-attucks-american-memory
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.c-span.org/video/?469822-1*crispus-attucks-american-memory__;Lw!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_Rfbhj6sY1N$>
*War of 1812*
https://www.pbs.org/video/the-war-of-1812-blacks-in-the-war/
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.pbs.org/video/the-war-of-1812-blacks-in-the-war/__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_Rfbv6BLkSH$>
https://www.canada.ca/en/canadian-heritage/campaigns/black-history-month/transcript-black-soldiers-fight-canada.html
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.canada.ca/en/canadian-heritage/campaigns/black-history-month/transcript-black-soldiers-fight-canada.html__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbilPuDyb$>

*Civil War*
https://www.britannica.com/video/195084/Overview-involvement-soldiers-African-American-Civil-War
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.britannica.com/video/195084/Overview-involvement-soldiers-African-American-Civil-War__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_Rfbvhxl2ch$>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZIwrLX5T9lE
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZIwrLX5T9lE__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbqU11JCQ$>

*Spanish American War*
https://www.sutori.com/story/black-soldiers-in-the-spanish-american-war--Tgg5hC5Aqi39Vr9s1jSGpRGo
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.sutori.com/story/black-soldiers-in-the-spanish-american-war--Tgg5hC5Aqi39Vr9s1jSGpRGo__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_Rfbrbt0bP9$>
https://blog.theveteranssite.greatergood.com/buffalo-soldiers-cuba/
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://blog.theveteranssite.greatergood.com/buffalo-soldiers-cuba/__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_Rfbsg4BL1U$>

*World War I*
https://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/wwi/war
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/wwi/war__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbqMt9vOS$>
https://taskandpurpose.com/news/harlem-hellfighters-world-war-one-exhibit/
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://taskandpurpose.com/news/harlem-hellfighters-world-war-one-exhibit/__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfboofaT5u$>
https://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/racism_in_the_armed_forces_usa
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/racism_in_the_armed_forces_usa__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbiRUXW0L$>

*World War II*
https://www.nationalww2museum.org/war/articles/black-history-month
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.nationalww2museum.org/war/articles/black-history-month__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbgfiYjwb$>
https://www.pritzkermilitary.org/whats_on/citizen-soldier/tuskegee-airmen
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.pritzkermilitary.org/whats_on/citizen-soldier/tuskegee-airmen__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbiSQPHo1$>
https://www.c-span.org/video/?509910-1/african-american-soldiers-world-war-ii
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.c-span.org/video/?509910-1*african-american-soldiers-world-war-ii__;Lw!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbvnCUXnd$>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ppjipVpGCAU
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ppjipVpGCAU__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbsrhereL$>
https://unwritten-record.blogs.archives.gov/2020/03/12/african-american-women-in-the-military-during-wwii/
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://unwritten-record.blogs.archives.gov/2020/03/12/african-american-women-in-the-military-during-wwii/__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbmK0vvw7$>

*Korean War*
https://koreanwarlegacy.org/chapters/african-americans-in-the-korean-war/
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://koreanwarlegacy.org/chapters/african-americans-in-the-korean-war/__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_Rfbmeh2nS4$>
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sWW1Eo4gxy0
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sWW1Eo4gxy0__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbqVC_Mxy$>
https://koreanwarlegacy.org/interviews/john-e-saxton/
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://koreanwarlegacy.org/interviews/john-e-saxton/__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_Rfbr9Kxwqp$>

*Vietnam War*
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJnIglTIphk
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJnIglTIphk__;!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_RfbqAYaGVW$>
https://www.c-span.org/video/?471464-1/race-vietnam-war
<https://urldefense.com/v3/__https://www.c-span.org/video/?471464-1*race-vietnam-war__;Lw!!DZ3fjg!v6PRAuNC2mFbkGOx3pt0rMQRjyMFFqn4an2KLfYczt-uFSosEWYhCKynLG_8k_Rfbih0D-A_$>

*What sources exist on the Black military experience for Iraq and
Afghanistan?*
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