[Blackstudies-l] ​Race/Related: Emmett Till’s Enduring Legacy

Maria Helena Lima lima at geneseo.edu
Sat Aug 28 09:47:11 EDT 2021


A look at how a 14-year-old’s murder in 1955 has shaped the civil rights
movement in America.
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[image: More Race/Related]
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August 28, 2021
Robert A. Davis/Chicago Sun-Times, via Associated Press

By Adeel Hassan
Who Was Emmett Till?

In late summer 1955, Mamie Till chose to lay the body of her only child,
Emmett, in an open coffin, believing that “the whole nation had to bear
witness to this” — this Black child of Chicago who had been murdered and
mutilated by white men in Mississippi.

“They had to see what I had seen,” she wrote in her memoir.

Hundreds of thousands of mourners lined up to witness for themselves the
horror wrought on the 14-year-old victim
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and many, many more saw it when photographs of his body were published in
Jet magazine.

>From that moment until today, Emmett Till has shaped the civil rights
movement in America. Here is a look at who he was, the outrage at his
murder and the acquittal of his killers, and his enduring legacy.
The photo of Mamie Till Mobley mourning over her son’s open coffin was a
catalyst for the civil rights movement.Chicago Sun-Times, via Associated
Press
What was Emmett’s childhood like?

Emmett Louis Till was born on July 25, 1941, in Chicago. While Emmett, who
was nicknamed Bobo, was an only child, he lived with his mother,
grandparents and cousins in a middle-class Black neighborhood on the South
Side. A younger cousin, Ollie Gordon,
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said Emmett “was a jokester” and “loved to make people laugh.”

As a child he contracted polio, which led to a speech impediment. His
mother taught him how to whistle, to help him overcome his stutter.

Emmett’s mother was a 2-year-old in 1924 when she and her family moved from
Mississippi to the Chicago area as part of the Great Migration.

Emmett never knew his father, Louis Till, who joined the Army and was
accused of raping two women and killing another in Italy in World War II.
He was executed in 1945 at age 23, and his military record was leaked
before the trial of Emmett’s killers.
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How did Emmett die?

In late August 1955, Emmett left his home to visit relatives in the
Mississippi Delta.

On the evening of Aug. 24, after picking cotton with his cousins, Emmett
went to a store
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in Money, Miss., that was run by a white couple in their 20s, Roy and
Carolyn Bryant. When Emmett went inside to buy bubble gum, Ms. Bryant was
working alone.

Emmett’s cousin Simeon Wright, 13, and Ruthie Mae Crawford, another Black
teenager, said Emmett passed the money for the bubble gum into Ms. Bryant’s
hand, instead of leaving it on the counter, as white Mississippians
generally expected African Americans to do. Ms. Bryant stormed out to get a
pistol from her car, she later testified. Simeon said that Emmett then
whistled at Ms. Bryant, and that their group became afraid and left quickly.

Four days later, Mr. Bryant and his half brother, J.W. Milam, both Army
veterans, abducted Emmett
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at gunpoint from the Wright family home. The men took him to a barn about a
45-minute drive away and tortured him.
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The men shot Emmett in the head, tied a 75-pound cotton-gin fan to his neck
with barbed wire, and tossed his body into the Tallahatchie River. His
mutilated corpse was fished out of the water on Aug. 31.

The remains could be identified only by the silver ring on one finger.
Emmett had been pistol-whipped; both his wrists were broken; the back of
his skull was crushed; other parts of the skull were crumbled; and one eye
was gouged out, while the other hung from its optic nerve. The sheriff sought
to bury him
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immediately.
What happened at his funeral?

As soon as Mamie Till heard that her son had been kidnapped, she began
harnessing the political and cultural power of Black Chicago. A large crowd
was on hand when the train carrying Emmett’s body arrived.

“You didn’t die for nothing,” she said as the body was transferred to a
hearse.

The Chicago Defender estimated that 250,000 people attended during the four
days of public viewings.
Chicago Sun Times, via Associated Press

The close-up photographs of Emmett’s face and body, and the television
coverage of his funeral, turned a local murder into a global symbol of
American injustice.
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A few weeks after Emmett’s funeral, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat
on a segregated bus in Alabama, saying that
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she found herself unable to move because she was thinking about Emmett.

Emmett’s mother became a teacher and a civil rights activist. “She cried
from the day of Emmett’s murder to the day she died,” Ms. Gordon said.

Emmett and his mother, who died in 2003
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are buried in Burr Oak Cemetery in Alsip, Ill., a Chicago suburb.
What happened at the trial?

Historians believe that several white men were involved in the torture and
murder of Emmett, though only Mr. Bryant and Mr. Milam were put on trial.
The defense’s argument, by the end, was that Emmett was still alive and
hiding out in Chicago or elsewhere, and that the N.A.A.C.P. had put a
different body in the river.

Each Black witness for the prosecution, including Emmett’s mother, took
great risks to testify. Two Black witnesses were jailed in another county
to keep them from appearing at the trial.

Ms. Bryant testified that Emmett accosted her and made crude remarks (claims
that she would recant
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more than 50 years later). After five days and an hour of jury
deliberation, the two men were acquitted
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by an all-white, all-male jury; the acquittal meant they could not be
retried, even after they later admitted in a Look magazine interview that
they had committed the murder. After the trial, a grand jury chose not to
indict them on kidnapping charges, even though they had initially told the
authorities that they kidnapped and released Emmett.

Tallahatchie County issued a formal apology
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in 2007 for the 1955 acquittals. “The Emmett Till case was a terrible
miscarriage of justice,” it said in part. “We state candidly and with deep
regret the failure to effectively pursue justice.”
What was the Emmett Till generation?

The Black Americans who grew up in the 1950s organized nearly all of the
mass meetings, sit-ins and marches that accelerated the civil rights
movement, calling themselves “the Emmett Till generation.”

“I realized that this could just as easily have been a story about me or my
brother,” Muhammad Ali said.

Representative John Lewis of Georgia wrote that he had been “shaken to the
core” by Emmett’s death. As was Representative Bobby L. Rush of Illinois,
who was 9 years old and living in the Deep South at the time of the killing.
Rep. Bobby Rush, D-Ill., speaks  about the ”Emmett Till Antilynching Act”
which would designate lynching as a hate crime under federal law,J. Scott
Applewhite/Associated Press

“When the photograph from Emmett Till’s funeral ran in Jet magazine, I will
never forget how my mother gathered us around the living room coffee table,
put the magazine in the middle, pointed to it, and said, ‘This is why I
brought my boys up out of Albany, Ga.,’” he said in an interview. “That
photograph shaped my consciousness as a Black man in America. The course of
my life would not have been the same had I not been exposed, as a child, to
the horror of the photograph.”
Were his killers ever held accountable?

No. In May 2004, the F.B.I. opened an investigation
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to see if others were involved, and Emmett’s body was later exhumed for an
autopsy, which had not previously been performed. In 2007, a state grand
jury in Mississippi declined to indict anyone else.

Mr. Bryant, who spent time in prison for food stamp fraud, died in 1994.
Mr. Milam also spent time in jail, for using a stolen credit card and, in a
separate case, for assault and battery. He died in 1980.
What about Carolyn Bryant?

The local authorities initially issued a warrant for Ms. Bryant’s arrest on
kidnapping charges, but it was never served. A grand jury in Greenwood,
Miss., declined to indict
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her in 2007.

The Justice Department reopened the case after a 2017 book, “The Blood of
Emmett Till,” quoted Ms. Bryant as saying she lied when she claimed that
Emmett had physically accosted her and had made sexual advances. She also
told the author that “nothing that boy did could ever justify what happened
to him.” There have been no recent updates on the case.
What has Emmett’s family been doing?

Some of his relatives are trying to keep pressure on law enforcement
officials to charge Ms. Bryant
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“We hope that they’re not waiting for her to pass on,” said Emmett’s cousin
Deborah Watts, who leads the Emmett Till Legacy Foundation
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/VNTYm2oTGiRXugwIOXNoCQ~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0S_aHR0cHM6Ly9lbW1ldHR0aWxsbGVnYWN5Zm91bmRhdGlvbi5jb20vP2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3JmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMjEwODI4Jmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTM4OTA1Jm5sPXJhY2UlMkZyZWxhdGVkJnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmc2VnbWVudF9pZD02NzUxMSZ0ZT0xJnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzVXA255dEIKYSZTFyphcVd0b1IQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>,
which supports other families whose civil rights have been violated.
Deborah Watts, Emmett Till’s cousin, center, released balloons in St. Paul,
Minn., in July on what would have been his 80th birthday.Renée Jones
Schneider/Star Tribune, via Associated Press

Another cousin, the Rev. Wheeler Parker, the only remaining witness to the
kidnapping, is helping lead an effort to preserve related sites in Chicago
and Mississippi
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/2hfImo6vXrxJ9hDHTrANFg~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0S5aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cudGlsbG5hdGlvbmFscGFyay5vcmcvP2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3JmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMjEwODI4Jmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTM4OTA1Jm5sPXJhY2UlMkZyZWxhdGVkJnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmc2VnbWVudF9pZD02NzUxMSZ0ZT0xJnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzVXA255dEIKYSZTFyphcVd0b1IQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>,
like the church that held Emmett’s funeral, the barn where he was tortured
and the courthouse, so that they might form a national park or monument.
What is his legacy today?

The photographs and TV coverage of Emmett’s body were a precursor to the
1960s’ scenes of officers turning dogs and water cannons on peaceful civil
rights demonstrators in Birmingham and Selma, Ala., the police beating of
Rodney King in Los Angeles in 1991, and the smartphone video
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/9LQyLKcsODjTtcoV4XKsIQ~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0TtaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vdmlkZW8vdXMvMTAwMDAwMDA3MTU5MzUzL2dlb3JnZS1mbG95ZC1hcnJlc3QtZGVhdGgtdmlkZW8uaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDgyOCZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zODkwNSZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9Njc1MTEmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmEmUxcqYXFXdG9SEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>
of George Floyd’s murder in Minneapolis last year.

Emmett’s name has in some ways become a byword for African American boys
and men who are killed by people in positions of authority, such that
victims are sometimes referred to as “the new Emmett Till.”

After learning that there would be no state indictment of the police
officer who fatally shot a Black teenager in Ferguson, Mo., in August 2014,
a crowd gathered in front of the White House, chanting: “How many Black
kids will you kill? Michael Brown
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/pglbxsJkFfoYoQLv3cl2mg~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP4QHAWh0dHBzOi8vd3d3Lm55dGltZXMuY29tL2ludGVyYWN0aXZlLzIwMTQvMDgvMTMvdXMvZmVyZ3Vzb24tbWlzc291cmktdG93bi11bmRlci1zaWVnZS1hZnRlci1wb2xpY2Utc2hvb3RpbmcuaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDgyOCZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zODkwNSZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9Njc1MTEmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmEmUxcqYXFXdG9SEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>,
Emmett Till!”

And Mr. Rush introduced a bill this year, called the Emmett Till
Antilynching Act
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/UcoPvfth2n-ZyKYmZNTOnQ~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0TSaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuY29uZ3Jlc3MuZ292L2JpbGwvMTE3dGgtY29uZ3Jlc3MvaG91c2UtYmlsbC81NT9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDgyOCZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zODkwNSZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9Njc1MTEmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmEmUxcqYXFXdG9SEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>,
that would make lynching a federal hate crime.

“The metaphorical lynching rope that killed Emmett Till also killed George
Floyd and countless others,” Mr. Rush said. “It extends throughout the
history of Black people in America, and it has strangled our nation,
preventing America from realizing the promise of its potential.”

EDITOR’S PICKS

We publish many articles that touch on race. Here are several you shouldn’t
miss.
[image: Article Image]

Associated Press
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/Sr7PgGha7y7Z-rLMqinXqA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0TcaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wNy8yNC91cy9lbW1ldHQtdGlsbC04MHRoLWJpcnRoZGF5Lmh0bWw_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmZW1jPWVkaXRfcnJfMjAyMTA4MjgmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9Mzg5MDUmbmw9cmFjZSUyRnJlbGF0ZWQmcmVnaV9pZD00Mjc0MDg5NyZzZWdtZW50X2lkPTY3NTExJnRlPTEmdXNlcl9pZD0zOTM4ZjE3ZDgxODJhMjJmZGUxNDY3ZmY5ZDBiYjVjNVcDbnl0QgphJlMXKmFxV3RvUhBsaW1hQGdlbmVzZW8uZWR1WAQAAAAA>

Race/Related
‘He Had a Life Before Death’: Remembering Emmett Till for the Child He Was

Emmett Till’s cousin Ollie Gordon recalled him as a jokester who “loved to
make people laugh” as she reflected on their childhood together ahead of
what would have been his 80th birthday.

By Adeel Hassan
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/Sr7PgGha7y7Z-rLMqinXqA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0TcaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wNy8yNC91cy9lbW1ldHQtdGlsbC04MHRoLWJpcnRoZGF5Lmh0bWw_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmZW1jPWVkaXRfcnJfMjAyMTA4MjgmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9Mzg5MDUmbmw9cmFjZSUyRnJlbGF0ZWQmcmVnaV9pZD00Mjc0MDg5NyZzZWdtZW50X2lkPTY3NTExJnRlPTEmdXNlcl9pZD0zOTM4ZjE3ZDgxODJhMjJmZGUxNDY3ZmY5ZDBiYjVjNVcDbnl0QgphJlMXKmFxV3RvUhBsaW1hQGdlbmVzZW8uZWR1WAQAAAAA>
[image: Article Image]

Pablo Delcan
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/jFAeN9fEABAvho7dqeqezw~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0TsaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wOC8yNC9vcGluaW9uL2FudGlyYWNpc20tdW5pdmVyc2l0eS13aXNjb25zaW4tcm9jay5odG1sP2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3JmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMjEwODI4Jmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTM4OTA1Jm5sPXJhY2UlMkZyZWxhdGVkJnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmc2VnbWVudF9pZD02NzUxMSZ0ZT0xJnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzVXA255dEIKYSZTFyphcVd0b1IQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>

John McWhorter
The Performative Antiracism of Black Students at the U. of Wisconsin

A textbook demonstration of the difference between sincere activism and
playacting.

By John McWhorter
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/jFAeN9fEABAvho7dqeqezw~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0TsaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wOC8yNC9vcGluaW9uL2FudGlyYWNpc20tdW5pdmVyc2l0eS13aXNjb25zaW4tcm9jay5odG1sP2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3JmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMjEwODI4Jmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTM4OTA1Jm5sPXJhY2UlMkZyZWxhdGVkJnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmc2VnbWVudF9pZD02NzUxMSZ0ZT0xJnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzVXA255dEIKYSZTFyphcVd0b1IQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>
[image: Article Image]

Josefina Santos for The New York Times
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/kGUCvoFPa4CDLd8XutBvBA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0TZaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wOC8yNi9tb3ZpZXMveW5haXJhbHktc2ltby12aXZvLmh0bWw_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmZW1jPWVkaXRfcnJfMjAyMTA4MjgmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9Mzg5MDUmbmw9cmFjZSUyRnJlbGF0ZWQmcmVnaV9pZD00Mjc0MDg5NyZzZWdtZW50X2lkPTY3NTExJnRlPTEmdXNlcl9pZD0zOTM4ZjE3ZDgxODJhMjJmZGUxNDY3ZmY5ZDBiYjVjNVcDbnl0QgphJlMXKmFxV3RvUhBsaW1hQGdlbmVzZW8uZWR1WAQAAAAA>
Ynairaly
Simo Reps the Bronx (and Tweenage Zest) in ‘Vivo’

The 14-year-old Dominican American actress makes her big screen debut in
the animated musical on Netflix, with songs by Lin-Manuel Miranda.

By Laura Zornosa
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/kGUCvoFPa4CDLd8XutBvBA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0TZaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wOC8yNi9tb3ZpZXMveW5haXJhbHktc2ltby12aXZvLmh0bWw_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmZW1jPWVkaXRfcnJfMjAyMTA4MjgmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9Mzg5MDUmbmw9cmFjZSUyRnJlbGF0ZWQmcmVnaV9pZD00Mjc0MDg5NyZzZWdtZW50X2lkPTY3NTExJnRlPTEmdXNlcl9pZD0zOTM4ZjE3ZDgxODJhMjJmZGUxNDY3ZmY5ZDBiYjVjNVcDbnl0QgphJlMXKmFxV3RvUhBsaW1hQGdlbmVzZW8uZWR1WAQAAAAA>
[image: Article Image]

Rogelio V. Solis/Associated Press
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/y4WHbmFkPUUgDSo54_9LPg~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0TtaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wOC8yNS91cy9hYXJvbi1sYXJyeS1ib3dtYW4tdmlkZW8tbG91aXNpYW5hLXRyb29wZXIuaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDgyOCZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zODkwNSZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9Njc1MTEmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmEmUxcqYXFXdG9SEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>
Video
Shows Louisiana Trooper Beating a Black Man With a Flashlight

The trooper, Jacob Brown, who was charged with assaulting Aaron Larry
Bowman in May 2019 and later resigned, defended the attack as “pain
compliance.”

By Neil Vigdor
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/y4WHbmFkPUUgDSo54_9LPg~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0TtaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wOC8yNS91cy9hYXJvbi1sYXJyeS1ib3dtYW4tdmlkZW8tbG91aXNpYW5hLXRyb29wZXIuaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDgyOCZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zODkwNSZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9Njc1MTEmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmEmUxcqYXFXdG9SEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>
[image: Article Image]

Tehron Royes
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/5Gekg8rBDc2KipVTWm29cQ~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0TVaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wOC8yNS9hcnRzL2plYW4tYnJlZXplLWRlYWQuaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDgyOCZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zODkwNSZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9Njc1MTEmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmEmUxcqYXFXdG9SEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>
Jean
Breeze, First Woman of Dub Poetry, Dies at 65

She was known for the passion of her performances, the raw honesty of her
stories and her use of Jamaica’s lyrical vernacular.

By Katharine Q. Seelye
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/5Gekg8rBDc2KipVTWm29cQ~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0TVaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wOC8yNS9hcnRzL2plYW4tYnJlZXplLWRlYWQuaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDgyOCZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zODkwNSZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9Njc1MTEmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmEmUxcqYXFXdG9SEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>
[image: Article Image]

MGM
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/EPQ_9NZ9KboF70clZQ87vg~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0TzaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wOC8yNS9tb3ZpZXMvYXJldGhhLWZyYW5rbGluLXJlc3BlY3QtZ2VuaXVzLWFtYXppbmctZ3JhY2UuaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDgyOCZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zODkwNSZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9Njc1MTEmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmEmUxcqYXFXdG9SEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>

Critic’s Notebook
Aretha Franklin and the Futility of Trying to Portray Her Onscreen

The new film “Respect” is one of three recent attempts to understand the
artist. Only the one that focuses solely on her music comes close.

By Salamishah Tillet
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/EPQ_9NZ9KboF70clZQ87vg~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0TzaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wOC8yNS9tb3ZpZXMvYXJldGhhLWZyYW5rbGluLXJlc3BlY3QtZ2VuaXVzLWFtYXppbmctZ3JhY2UuaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDgyOCZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zODkwNSZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9Njc1MTEmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmEmUxcqYXFXdG9SEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>
[image: Article Image]

Sarahbeth Maney/The New York Times
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/ZMOJtcj7cUDVs2wNk4ClFw~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0ToaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wOC8yNS91cy9taWdyYW50LWNhbXAtcmV5bm9zYS1yZW1haW4taW4tbWV4aWNvLmh0bWw_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmZW1jPWVkaXRfcnJfMjAyMTA4MjgmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9Mzg5MDUmbmw9cmFjZSUyRnJlbGF0ZWQmcmVnaV9pZD00Mjc0MDg5NyZzZWdtZW50X2lkPTY3NTExJnRlPTEmdXNlcl9pZD0zOTM4ZjE3ZDgxODJhMjJmZGUxNDY3ZmY5ZDBiYjVjNVcDbnl0QgphJlMXKmFxV3RvUhBsaW1hQGdlbmVzZW8uZWR1WAQAAAAA>
A
Squalid Border Camp Finally Closed. Now Another One Has Opened.

President Biden’s policies helped shut down a camp in Mexico that housed
migrants during the Trump administration. But thousands are gathered now in
a new camp. “The border is not really any different,” said a lawyer working
there.

By Miriam Jordan
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/ZMOJtcj7cUDVs2wNk4ClFw~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0ToaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wOC8yNS91cy9taWdyYW50LWNhbXAtcmV5bm9zYS1yZW1haW4taW4tbWV4aWNvLmh0bWw_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmZW1jPWVkaXRfcnJfMjAyMTA4MjgmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9Mzg5MDUmbmw9cmFjZSUyRnJlbGF0ZWQmcmVnaV9pZD00Mjc0MDg5NyZzZWdtZW50X2lkPTY3NTExJnRlPTEmdXNlcl9pZD0zOTM4ZjE3ZDgxODJhMjJmZGUxNDY3ZmY5ZDBiYjVjNVcDbnl0QgphJlMXKmFxV3RvUhBsaW1hQGdlbmVzZW8uZWR1WAQAAAAA>
[image: Article Image]

Chang W. Lee/The New York Times
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/NWNxMz5fHD_vZUU1e_XLbA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0TraHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wOC8yNS93b3JsZC9hc2lhL2FmZ2hhbi1zd2ltbWVyLXRva3lvLXBhcmFseW1waWNzLmh0bWw_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmZW1jPWVkaXRfcnJfMjAyMTA4MjgmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9Mzg5MDUmbmw9cmFjZSUyRnJlbGF0ZWQmcmVnaV9pZD00Mjc0MDg5NyZzZWdtZW50X2lkPTY3NTExJnRlPTEmdXNlcl9pZD0zOTM4ZjE3ZDgxODJhMjJmZGUxNDY3ZmY5ZDBiYjVjNVcDbnl0QgphJlMXKmFxV3RvUhBsaW1hQGdlbmVzZW8uZWR1WAQAAAAA>
A
Swimmer’s Journey From Afghanistan to Refugee Camps to the Paralympics

Abbas Karimi, who was born without arms, eventually made it to the U.S. and
realized his dream of competing internationally.

By Motoko Rich
<https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/NWNxMz5fHD_vZUU1e_XLbA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRjDJxTP0TraHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wOC8yNS93b3JsZC9hc2lhL2FmZ2hhbi1zd2ltbWVyLXRva3lvLXBhcmFseW1waWNzLmh0bWw_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmZW1jPWVkaXRfcnJfMjAyMTA4MjgmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9Mzg5MDUmbmw9cmFjZSUyRnJlbGF0ZWQmcmVnaV9pZD00Mjc0MDg5NyZzZWdtZW50X2lkPTY3NTExJnRlPTEmdXNlcl9pZD0zOTM4ZjE3ZDgxODJhMjJmZGUxNDY3ZmY5ZDBiYjVjNVcDbnl0QgphJlMXKmFxV3RvUhBsaW1hQGdlbmVzZW8uZWR1WAQAAAAA>

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