[Blackstudies-l] How a Slave Market Became a National Park Service Site: ​Natchez, Miss.

Maria Helena Lima lima at geneseo.edu
Mon Jul 5 10:31:15 EDT 2021


Maybe you should give a talk about it in the fall.  My students and I would
definitely be there.  Maybe I should read your book.
Since I have your attention, Nikole Hannah-Jones is giving her first
interview since tenure for "CBS This Morning" tomorrow.
Gayle will be the perfect interviewer.  Of course you can watch it on the
website if you are not a morning person.
❤

On Mon, Jul 5, 2021 at 10:13 AM Justin Behrend <behrend at geneseo.edu> wrote:

> I've met and talked with Mr. Boxley. He was the driving force to create
> this memorial to the second-largest slave market in the U.S. I pick up the
> story of what happened after emancipation in Natchez in my book, *Reconstructing
> Democracy
> <https://ugapress.org/book/9780820351421/reconstructing-democracy/>. *I
> also wrote a little story about slave resistance in Natchez
> <https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/15/rumors-of-revolt/>.
>
> On Sat, Jul 3, 2021 at 10:13 AM Maria Helena Lima <lima at geneseo.edu>
> wrote:
>
>>
>> From 1833 to 1863, Forks of the Road was among the largest slave markets
>> in America.
>> View in browser
>> <https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/QoXl8ZjPOR5TGqZGlmppAA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRiwsi4P4QoAWh0dHBzOi8vbWVzc2FnaW5nLWN1c3RvbS1uZXdzbGV0dGVycy5ueXRpbWVzLmNvbS90ZW1wbGF0ZS9vYWt2Mj9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDcwMyZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zNDUwOCZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZwcm9kdWN0Q29kZT1SUiZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9NjI1NDYmdGU9MSZ1cmk9bnl0JTNBJTJGJTJGbmV3c2xldHRlciUyRmZmYjMyOThmLWRlYTctNTA0YS1iNDIxLTdlMTAyNjY1ODY2MyZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmDduEPgYOS8dyhSEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>
>> |nytimes.com
>> <https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/1Gb2WviXTRgaV9CQcbCFzg~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRiwsi4P0SwaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vP2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3JmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMjEwNzAzJmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTM0NTA4Jm5sPXJhY2UlMkZyZWxhdGVkJnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmc2VnbWVudF9pZD02MjU0NiZ0ZT0xJnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzVXA255dEIKYN24Q-Bg5Lx3KFIQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>
>> Continue reading the main story
>> <#m_5454714281295888328_m_-6004852459405860494_m_2131081208067953201_a11y-skip-ad-marquee>
>>
>> [image: More Race/Related]
>> <https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/fABjr8QxfcVvXXGLDwbBLQ~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRiwsi4P0S-aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vc3BvdGxpZ2h0L3JhY2U_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmZW1jPWVkaXRfcnJfMjAyMTA3MDMmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9MzQ1MDgmbmw9cmFjZSUyRnJlbGF0ZWQmcmVnaV9pZD00Mjc0MDg5NyZzZWdtZW50X2lkPTYyNTQ2JnRlPTEmdXNlcl9pZD0zOTM4ZjE3ZDgxODJhMjJmZGUxNDY3ZmY5ZDBiYjVjNVcDbnl0Qgpg3bhD4GDkvHcoUhBsaW1hQGdlbmVzZW8uZWR1WAQAAAAA>
>>
>> July 3, 2021
>> Dan Gibson, fourth from right, the mayor of Natchez, Miss., and other
>> elected officials joined Kathleen Bond, third from right, the
>> superintendent for the Natchez National Historical Park, in unveiling new
>> signs for the entrance to the Forks of the Road slave market site.Imani
>> Khayyam for The New York Times
>> How the Truth of Forks of the Road Came to Be
>>
>> By Brishette Mendoza
>>
>> NATCHEZ, Miss. — When driving through Natchez, Miss., a town popular with
>> tourists, it is easy to overlook an awkwardly shaped patch of land, only
>> modestly marked by a few signs, free-standing exhibits and shackles
>> cemented in the ground.
>>
>> But from 1833 to 1863, the land, Forks of the Road
>> <https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/jBMcy0LaG1zSpEF5Zz1Qsg~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRiwsi4P0TSaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnBzLmdvdi90aGluZ3N0b2RvL2Fib3V0LWZvcmtzLW9mLXRoZS1yb2FkLmh0bT9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDcwMyZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zNDUwOCZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9NjI1NDYmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmDduEPgYOS8dyhSEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>,
>> was among the largest slave markets in America. And now, local historians,
>> residents and officials are celebrating its recognition as a new national
>> historical park site.
>>
>> Once long forgotten by many outside the region, Forks of the Road was
>> where tens of thousands of enslaved men, women and children were taken to
>> work in homes and plantations. The domestic slave trade was such a central
>> feature of the nation’s economy, and it made millionaires out of many
>> Natchez residents
>> <https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/BdsiutbJNK3jGGtt4Y_jUQ~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRiwsi4P0T4aHR0cHM6Ly90aW1lc21hY2hpbmUubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vdGltZXNtYWNoaW5lLzE5NTEvMDIvMDQvODQ4MzM1MjAuaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDcwMyZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zNDUwOCZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZwYWdlTnVtYmVyPTEwMSZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9NjI1NDYmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1Jnpvb209MTQuOTNXA255dEIKYN24Q-Bg5Lx3KFIQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>
>> .
>>
>> In an emotional ceremony late last month in which the city donated nearly
>> three acres of land to the National Park Service, officials unveiled a
>> large National Park Service sign that now marks the acknowledgment that
>> residents and many outside the region said was a long time coming: “Forks
>> of the Road, Natchez National Historical Park.”
>>
>> “History is not always pleasant, but it’s important that history be told,
>> all of it,” and particularly in this moment in America, said Dan Gibson,
>> the mayor of Natchez. He was elected in July 2020, as thousands of people
>> were marching in streets across the nation to protest systemic racism and
>> police brutality in the wake of George Floyd’s murder.
>>
>> “It’s a sad story,” he said of the history of Forks of the Road. “And I
>> think for many years, there are some who would have been satisfied to see
>> that story forgotten. But how can you forget it?”
>> Continue reading the main story
>> <#m_5454714281295888328_m_-6004852459405860494_m_2131081208067953201_a11y-skip-0>
>> ADVERTISEMENT
>>
>> Many of the descendants of those once enslaved in Natchez — a
>> majority-African American city of about 14,600 residents — still live in
>> the area, Mr. Gibson said, and deserve to have their contributions to the
>> history of Natchez finally recognized.
>>
>> A federal law passed in 2017 authorized the Natchez National Historical
>> Park, an 18.5-acre site, to preserve and interpret the Forks of the Road
>> plot, and there are plans to build an educational visitor center and a
>> memorial or monument.
>>
>> In his keynote speech at the June 18 ceremony, the day after President
>> Biden signed legislation making Juneteenth a federal holiday, Senator Roger
>> Wicker, Republican of Mississippi, acknowledged that the country had been
>> the “the greatest experiment in democracy and freedom that’s ever been
>> known around the globe. But it’s also been a work in progress.”
>>
>> He noted the irony of the historical street names that bound the location
>> of the Forks of the Road — at the corner of Liberty and Washington. “I
>> wonder if it dawned on the people participating there, what was done,” he
>> said.
>> Continue reading the main story
>> <#m_5454714281295888328_m_-6004852459405860494_m_2131081208067953201_a11y-skip-1>
>> ADVERTISEMENT
>>
>> Kathleen Bond, the superintendent for the Natchez National Historical
>> Park, oversaw a study that paved the way for congressional support of the
>> site. Its significance, she said, is “an opportunity to tell the truth.”
>>
>> “I’m a great believer in paradox, that you can hold things that seem
>> contradictory, but you don’t have the truth unless you’ve got the whole,
>> all the sides of it,” Ms. Bond said. “I mean, you can’t be here in Natchez
>> without seeing the beautiful architecture and the beautiful furnishings
>> that remain, after more than 150 years. But that was a beauty that was
>> built on an atrocity of violence and suffering and torture.”
>> Ser Seshsh Ab Heter-CM BoxleyImani Khayyam for The New York Times
>>
>> Residents agree that this milestone was reached because local historians
>> saw an opportunity and worked diligently to ensure its reality.
>> Continue reading the main story
>> <#m_5454714281295888328_m_-6004852459405860494_m_2131081208067953201_a11y-skip-2>
>> ADVERTISEMENT
>>
>> For more than two decades, Ser Seshsh Ab Heter-CM Boxley, plus the
>> Friends of the Forks of the Road Society Inc., lobbied for the preservation
>> of the site and a new, more complete telling of its history, which includes
>> remembering its role in the Civil War.
>>
>> During the war, Colored Troops soldiers serving at Fort McPherson, the
>> Union’s post in Natchez, leveled the Forks of the Road and used lumber from
>> the slave pens to fortify its holding.
>>
>> Ser Boxley, who was raised in Natchez but then lived in the San Francisco
>> Bay Area for 35 years after high school, observed upon his return in 1995
>> that the city’s tourism industry made it look as if white people had done
>> “everything all by themselves.”
>>
>> “I decided that I needed to do something,” he said. So he looked for a
>> site “that spoke to a people’s history.” The Forks of the Road was that
>> site.
>>
>> Its significance is not limited to Black people, he said, but is part of
>> a more complete telling of the region’s history.
>>
>> Mayor Gibson agreed.
>>
>> “It doesn’t mean we stop telling the story that’s been told here for so
>> many years, about the Natchez Indians, about the French, about the Spanish,
>> about the English and the Americans,” he said. “All of that’s important,
>> but it is also time to make sure we’re telling the story that is the
>> African American history of our community.”
>>
>> “I think this will build more unity here, but it will also bring more
>> tourists here,” he continued. “And it will also give people a sense of
>> belonging that I believe is long overdue.”
>>
>> Natchez has long been a tourist attraction, with its views of the
>> Mississippi River and opulent mansions, but visitors crave the full story
>> of the town. And the community “wants to tell that story,” said Devin
>> Heath, the executive director of Visit Natchez.
>> The Melrose Estate, a two-story Greek Revival mansion preserved as part
>> of the Natchez National Historical Park. It is one of the best-preserved
>> estates in the Deep South from the mid-1800s.Imani Khayyam for The New
>> York Times
>>
>> “How do we go forward together as one community?” he said, adding that
>> the descendants of the owners of the antebellum mansions weren’t the ones
>> who owned those who were enslaved, “they’re telling the story of the home.”
>>
>> “Several of them have reached out to me and said, ‘We want to be a part
>> of telling the complete story, we just need the resources and support,’”
>> Mr. Heath said. “And so what we’re doing is trying to create that kind of
>> environment where they’ll have that information.”
>>
>> Felicia Bridgewater-Irving, a city alderwoman who lives close to the site
>> and whose district includes Forks of the Road, said she often sees visitors
>> there. “If you ever visit there,” she said, “you’re emotionally filled with
>> what has taken place.”
>>
>> Acknowledging that history, she said, makes it easier to move forward.
>>
>> Her colleague, Valencia Hall, a city alderwoman who grew up in Natchez
>> during the Jim Crow South and whose ancestors include Colored Troops there,
>> said she was very proud to see Forks of the Road become a National Park
>> Service site.
>>
>> “It tells us how far we have come in race relations,” she said, showing a
>> way “to honor one another as human beings, as people with humanity, with
>> dignity and honor.”
>>
>> EDITOR’S PICKS
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>>
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>> [image: Article Image]
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>> <https://nl.nytimes.com/f/a/DKfhB3muPpy3LCztJ5lxvw~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRiwsi4P4QIAWh0dHBzOi8vd3d3Lm55dGltZXMuY29tL2ludGVyYWN0aXZlLzIwMjEvMDYvMzAvb3Bpbmlvbi9lbnZpcm9ubWVudGFsLWluZXF1aXR5LXRyZWVzLWNyaXRpY2FsLWluZnJhc3RydWN0dXJlLmh0bWw_Y2FtcGFpZ25faWQ9MzcmZW1jPWVkaXRfcnJfMjAyMTA3MDMmaW5zdGFuY2VfaWQ9MzQ1MDgmbmw9cmFjZSUyRnJlbGF0ZWQmcmVnaV9pZD00Mjc0MDg5NyZzZWdtZW50X2lkPTYyNTQ2JnRlPTEmdXNlcl9pZD0zOTM4ZjE3ZDgxODJhMjJmZGUxNDY3ZmY5ZDBiYjVjNVcDbnl0Qgpg3bhD4GDkvHcoUhBsaW1hQGdlbmVzZW8uZWR1WAQAAAAA> Since
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>> [image: Article Image]
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>> Bob Fitch Photography Archive, Department of Special Collections,
>> Stanford University Libraries
>>
>> <https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/wZc_k66p8o3DLYV9vQ0ImA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRiwsi4P0T-aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wNi8yOS91cy9lbGl6YWJldGgtbWFydGluZXotdm9pY2Utb2YtdGhlLWNoaWNhbmEtbW92ZW1lbnQtZGllcy1hdC05NS5odG1sP2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3JmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMjEwNzAzJmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTM0NTA4Jm5sPXJhY2UlMkZyZWxhdGVkJnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmc2VnbWVudF9pZD02MjU0NiZ0ZT0xJnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzVXA255dEIKYN24Q-Bg5Lx3KFIQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~> Elizabeth
>> Martínez, Voice of the Chicana Movement, Dies at 95
>>
>> Through her writings, she inspired, provoked, educated, strategized,
>> organized and built cross-racial and cross-ethnic alliances, all in pursuit
>> of social justice.
>>
>> By Katharine Q. Seelye
>>
>> <https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/wZc_k66p8o3DLYV9vQ0ImA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRiwsi4P0T-aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wNi8yOS91cy9lbGl6YWJldGgtbWFydGluZXotdm9pY2Utb2YtdGhlLWNoaWNhbmEtbW92ZW1lbnQtZGllcy1hdC05NS5odG1sP2NhbXBhaWduX2lkPTM3JmVtYz1lZGl0X3JyXzIwMjEwNzAzJmluc3RhbmNlX2lkPTM0NTA4Jm5sPXJhY2UlMkZyZWxhdGVkJnJlZ2lfaWQ9NDI3NDA4OTcmc2VnbWVudF9pZD02MjU0NiZ0ZT0xJnVzZXJfaWQ9MzkzOGYxN2Q4MTgyYTIyZmRlMTQ2N2ZmOWQwYmI1YzVXA255dEIKYN24Q-Bg5Lx3KFIQbGltYUBnZW5lc2VvLmVkdVgEAAAAAA~~>
>> [image: Article Image]
>>
>> Tomás Karmelo Amaya for The New York Times
>>
>> <https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/3aviTgzmDq7uJ97hN4Jhrw~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRiwsi4P0TqaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wNi8yOS9zY2llbmNlL2luZGlnZW5vdXMtZGF0YS1taWNyb2Jpb21lLXNjaWVuY2UuaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDcwMyZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zNDUwOCZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9NjI1NDYmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmDduEPgYOS8dyhSEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~> Training
>> the Next Generation of Indigenous Data Scientists
>>
>> A new workshop explores the right of Indigenous people to govern the
>> collection, ownership and use of their biological and cultural data.
>>
>> By Sabrina Imbler
>>
>> <https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/3aviTgzmDq7uJ97hN4Jhrw~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRiwsi4P0TqaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wNi8yOS9zY2llbmNlL2luZGlnZW5vdXMtZGF0YS1taWNyb2Jpb21lLXNjaWVuY2UuaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDcwMyZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zNDUwOCZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9NjI1NDYmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmDduEPgYOS8dyhSEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>
>> [image: Article Image]
>> <https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/1URALiQZOEicast9oMrlHA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRiwsi4P0TtaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wNi8yOC9idXNpbmVzcy9lY29ub215L2JsYWNrLXdvcmtlcnMtcmFjaWFsLXBheS1nYXAuaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDcwMyZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zNDUwOCZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9NjI1NDYmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmDduEPgYOS8dyhSEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~> Black
>> Workers Stopped Making Progress on Pay. Is It Racism?
>>
>> Economists are grappling with how much to blame bias or a changing
>> economy for the widening wage gap over the last 40 years.
>>
>> By Eduardo Porter
>>
>> <https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/1URALiQZOEicast9oMrlHA~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRiwsi4P0TtaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wNi8yOC9idXNpbmVzcy9lY29ub215L2JsYWNrLXdvcmtlcnMtcmFjaWFsLXBheS1nYXAuaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDcwMyZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zNDUwOCZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9NjI1NDYmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmDduEPgYOS8dyhSEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>
>> [image: Article Image]
>> <https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/xbmYuci3AEtJ-lSMo9Qqfw~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRiwsi4P0TqaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wNi8yNi9zdHlsZS9sZ2J0cS1hY3RpdmlzdHMtYXJ0aXN0cy10cmFpbGJsYXplcnMuaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDcwMyZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zNDUwOCZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9NjI1NDYmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmDduEPgYOS8dyhSEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~> They
>> Came to Slay: L.G.B.T.Q. Trailblazers
>>
>> These artists, activists, entrepreneurs and mentors have been leading the
>> way and opening doors for other L.G.B.T.Q. people of color for more than 30
>> years. And they have no plans to stop.
>>
>> By Derrick Bryson Taylor and Richard Williams
>>
>> <https://nl.nytimes.com/f/newsletter/xbmYuci3AEtJ-lSMo9Qqfw~~/AAAAAQA~/RgRiwsi4P0TqaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubnl0aW1lcy5jb20vMjAyMS8wNi8yNi9zdHlsZS9sZ2J0cS1hY3RpdmlzdHMtYXJ0aXN0cy10cmFpbGJsYXplcnMuaHRtbD9jYW1wYWlnbl9pZD0zNyZlbWM9ZWRpdF9ycl8yMDIxMDcwMyZpbnN0YW5jZV9pZD0zNDUwOCZubD1yYWNlJTJGcmVsYXRlZCZyZWdpX2lkPTQyNzQwODk3JnNlZ21lbnRfaWQ9NjI1NDYmdGU9MSZ1c2VyX2lkPTM5MzhmMTdkODE4MmEyMmZkZTE0NjdmZjlkMGJiNWM1VwNueXRCCmDduEPgYOS8dyhSEGxpbWFAZ2VuZXNlby5lZHVYBAAAAAA~>
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>
> --
> Justin Behrend, Ph.D.
> Professor and Chair of the History Department
> SUNY Geneseo
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