[Blackstudies-l] The event that should have opened the eyes of a nation: the Blinding of Isaac Woodard

Maria Helena Lima lima at geneseo.edu
Wed Mar 10 09:08:18 EST 2021


Coming soon.

If you are having trouble reading this email, *view it in your browser
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/e/evib?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=Q5-yjDzuQldxRiz57-daGzH2t--5aeU3lUBFl4OikxRbVlIvrgH2BkWSRVp7WFgo6kEPbYMhhBIx9Mc1PvBtak5VSPN_PktPBQzXyY1Y7ZQ%3D>*
.
[image: American Experience]
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=7wKGQyvsTSQrdO2sSc-us3K20fk1bvWflFZTzt1aHXngaujFtXRStXryOopwZjSLJgurA5jovFNydwnBQ45iTmPCWHF4qfLXZaDnyFZPTyHGn6mhfybNmtoPvXqHXGb3Ea_32Eai7Xdommw1TgKvq-Z4O6Bj0lICp9dlkKw6JH9oQvebWw7jHFr5ugD8JngnWt9qHQvGEryDZFlTYAbgP5kzY90Jwr1IsXo_BCoZmvsbRPprGBUK1pF-XXrGt92XC5lfMEDTMR65RtX-sWYnTUTj9Wmevsf3d_XhYH3rIn8%3D>

Corporate sponsors
[image: Liberty Mutual Insurance]
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=7wKGQyvsTSQrdO2sSc-us3jMVw3ra3QICYNXkl1oCGBZ9UOjKU1K-gk7Dvkyt7pozwRXBqlWK0W1nUjVUbJFOktyK_uLn1VGzhQbQ8pH_aLa8Okhcm8_fUUPhO4huHA9Ubfn70doxUaIGPPD3O9l5yauHuvULK9knkrS5Ww4KHKkrWzElQ2KNzimHl7jDiw8MHto1-oV7Dvo3LWqJUydjwT_xT5ww5Cr9bdnXpIsWKqfhz2zgsNrFFaODG5A1DHH0A6_xfib8MFyc0pWGeHfOA%3D%3D>[image:
Consumer Cellular]
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=7wKGQyvsTSQrdO2sSc-us5qXxWUTslkM3hZbQ7eyIqVh7E6CakGYIX6X-IEGdVcaDA-BzWFo8yX2QwRxSy4CjETfOvy8u3u7wILmwSsDcMRNF9iUQ5jx4_gFzhHKHR_igficgrz317VQFqoCCaWcs_7tua8kteC3oQDCQrN1RQizvb4tUjwpZ9rBBb7_AAYlbe4H5JCA1oJ2lkGxgoBm8OBTb3GDHwsbvd97zj4vWzpbj07MKCqIERy6-Sl1drmPa9XSGciYV8lOBqaHGR4ZzQ%3D%3D>
[image: Image of Isaac Woodard's face in black and white with the American
flag behind.]
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBOVHvSpNWB78KZtsfCLTUowU-3hYqjTPyzpw4LoruT2PWuL0OHERYf-EiLAZuD2n33Tkt-gAKdR96rweHC7Jn4aDg-7Y6wTMuRkjPbSjlIIpynT1j_bMNPHvarlYNiMauAqROTbWlwP6DzON7iwVP3wKHAbm-6HVxUEh54x05F6UgtHklGPvweujcqH8O7ur2chE0P8NEbDZzV3BevWyk6BvjTcNKexikE_Y_Qq8uRzBTn7w7QzWSFNiyhnX9kLZz8rFGT6GxaUvlgPNLgAuwbJplTRK2W-w_x_AZ_5IWfJv>
*Premieres Tues. March 30 at 9/8c*
In 1946, *Isaac Woodard*, a Black army sergeant on his way home to South
Carolina after serving in WWII, was pulled from a bus for arguing with the
driver. The local chief of police savagely beat him, leaving him
unconscious and permanently blind.

The shocking incident made national headlines and, when the police chief
was acquitted by an all-white jury, the blatant injustice would change the
course of American history.

*The Blinding of Isaac Woodard*
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBOVHvSpNWB78KZtsfCLTUowU-3hYqjTPyzpw4LoruT2PWuL0OHERYf-EiLAZuD2n33Tkt-gAKdR96rweHC7Jn4aT49AhB1fcQrAI7VzlUJf99_PjXodGkNVTtrnU_gF-hmJsASHKkskOYMsRfVeK7_apwaAP-EM9r2AMz8bqSPLqeq_iZEWaISU83-4R5o-52DWKMpSH84PzldVamKI7zVn_QPku551Gonx6Uqaod0n8iQfscs7N_Z-mdhzEtcTtqauj3c-sdJk7Nx_wvZ2PpwieH2mqKncjB3GcfSIxQXPZ>
premieres on Tuesday March 30 at 9/8c on PBS. Watch a preview now
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBOVHvSpNWB78KZtsfCLTUowU-3hYqjTPyzpw4LoruT2P--TH4ZwOKwZnuWDHhbWXaqfWdunaXxzLgTcgKsDJsY69B8vF4MJ_NPNIEmdTiqvqjJ7SemzAt7p5pYgSfDmkOqngt0Jz_-VSXjuc_0-7ntT4fafTTGHMPqyr926-l3CU1Smgv9QGwIwC9Fl9gUIA0GfxP_pghXRwIN-eTe_2JMSFUaDpqqccXYbpx4L88s6Jh4VTCC5SXTRy8xaMjQTmPvpOKPeZhTPJItTmCQjbk2RQ30xWbFhPYpyRoGXP3uyfaKXq4qXDIycb2xGGz76M5g%3D%3D>
.
PREVIEW HERE
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBOVHvSpNWB78KZtsfCLTUowU-3hYqjTPyzpw4LoruT2P--TH4ZwOKwZnuWDHhbWXaqfWdunaXxzLgTcgKsDJsY69B8vF4MJ_NPNIEmdTiqvqOvjZ_yZBe5CxYK1kglN4wmjwb2CpmOW0yEB3G_uirpaQ9gbvu0h8w3pvb6_S8IhIVQJ3WaChuTYoTC4dUGAzAhHv0f0GalcFMzzhRtvv325OwWgyAPO8l8gVneTYZzMwsk19u8bDCldnbIDmJTkc44J1sYZUBIQZ5PPgXugWJAEKNL4vLS6M6jBKuClxjSGqnKhtVI4XVvlSzdjJLZCFKA%3D%3D>
[image: Event image with title "Navigating white spaces: The power and
resilience of Black women"]
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBAiYRbcnGI43R0S2esng2oh2-aBPq0SrAHMiL36GTf2k_ZScge8FOMEN6S3N6IBO7tGtu9vGIwevP24V4fcJ2AQsFCjfoF01JZaZ9EkchDfLC4n_5JBujY7pzpBzjKvGceiRewW36zerGPGpv0i20mnpma9-I6Cb9dQ2qbrYH1QIIPh8pC_Bu73rOMF5J3DV3qv-q-2hfB9cH--ZAmNkxu30GoA6kiwiPAz3nEML_kTx5Qq4EbsCe7pMhs3oWx-nOcndLZaMQWBzTFHwXKhHdGoqh9-0MNlmAveYF2RkAQiX_gMr99BevMt4CyINJdBleYTx37IbGXwQ81yZveFSY0nOF_b9iBl76kAzXrc2nzdO50Bm4otgjB22NoXY0c_o2w%3D%3D>
*Join us on Wed. March 17*
Inspired by our new film *Voice of Freedom*
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBOVHvSpNWB78KZtsfCLTUowU-3hYqjTPyzpw4LoruT2P9iLa_h3DGCE3iJ4VHJJTgs21IOTmKlR6DPoAImtbpc11nXHEstrZgone_OcOfJZs3yZMMe95Dwg7gbQGyWkbsuddwnEVunyb8AYMgUem8lWVev06Y5BgmDVOpIQXC2JLUrtQ30vbYoMFiFOQOpGkqQIIuhVEEuWa-HD-cecTcNPv6Pmp91LbIGCEacNW0AYcEWundLWeWTmXLDk-DYdA_cZGGUkrsCyEELgeShKxyUXxd8167YFcYMQEC3p0B88a>
(now streaming on our website
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBOVHvSpNWB78KZtsfCLTUowU-3hYqjTPyzpw4LoruT2P9iLa_h3DGCE3iJ4VHJJTgrakUDs2LuJDc5wr-qIlPUrHF-RFMUMGSGU5FpxfQsHw_weBtJS2xG-tvaS3h7Zenkpkvd-maDyoLkfvmMLCgzOd2Yov-Xd8TRQcrPWLiLPBxUBUxZEKkdwFNR51a5bMoFRdzLYbIDuHc-cxcUHWGKDBAa2OsAEc1nYqKq57Y3dXHtoYUr1JS1xA8P6tWtwJ2iu2Y0fnlbErv9zlnE7ta_nCCuPke7BMOh3RB5ypkOoc>
and the PBS video app
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBBeNSXpASE95Q0PBqaaei1cKBZAQ1EMTeCtCeNbtU5jfkQmLB4b91NrJeccUHwZfz7jmLPabDzIfBSOS1Byd5kGT2FbsztKrT2Yv2F21ZxF9NsCHZTBbg_hi_hsVoBqUsD19735q5RcxKNGUie7Kl9dYCOJeHSo15Z2u9BenLhYAZ30mHa9awlZq7W64zEoLwj4-HYY-6VOhmkp5205zi6AXheElmvqxPFUsbIaPxoVbwhKjCq9yRM3vwt02K0DxChzwSLc7ozoGeFL6D5HVGUM%3D>),
we're pleased to present a virtual discussion
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBAiYRbcnGI43R0S2esng2oh2-aBPq0SrAHMiL36GTf2k_ZScge8FOMEN6S3N6IBO7tGtu9vGIwevP24V4fcJ2AQsFCjfoF01JZaZ9EkchDfLC4n_5JBujY7pzpBzjKvGceiRewW36zerGPGpv0i20mnpma9-I6Cb9dQ2qbrYH1QI9qchXI4tIWEUK7XwsJiDheU3hh4gwaIvJIciR1NI5lCcKMwmKsz7BlpOIjldboDu0ULNKNPA53D-8GWJpe3uAQpqzr8l26fNMQ7xg7HM9Sq6euTRpuMSH7sbuttlfPTQ5kuu_9N_gpdAQJ7llxwbJgftu0Z6gU7Ky_uz8bNrQfUhYptJ5LCAqHU31pnr0Iz-1E2vv9dgQkXFq65YXcAS-w%3D%3D>
around the excellence and power of Black women as they navigate and conquer
traditionally white spaces and industries.

The conversation
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBAiYRbcnGI43R0S2esng2oh2-aBPq0SrAHMiL36GTf2k_ZScge8FOMEN6S3N6IBO7tGtu9vGIwevP24V4fcJ2AQsFCjfoF01JZaZ9EkchDfLC4n_5JBujY7pzpBzjKvGceiRewW36zerGPGpv0i20mnpma9-I6Cb9dQ2qbrYH1QIqfDt_HVgQtWUuwpbPCSSQcpqMevPC91REfQmh0pDVix2m-1YpxDYxuOwneqQ_8Zpe_G3d-3Kiu4cioGnWhYoeHeShU0pT5fmrVFwJO6pti2AG0Wmq9tLch4is-Hp69B8va_7R75ylrg2KBfZlvGFs0tycmE9ehWoVhAPeMOzi9ouQgoKYZjl1h-Ir-bQxA8FxqFdUcs7aBroB4nlJfhxTQ%3D%3D>
will examine the life and accomplishments of acclaimed singer Marian
Anderson
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBOVHvSpNWB78KZtsfCLTUowU-3hYqjTPyzpw4LoruT2Pa84Jf0aqdLKCrsYiRLWOmjeWKBgua4nGcG8XiMaa_FaWRu4had06Iggo-_cjQhy518akVFibr8b9ufZevBeP785QXyyKfakvJZLhjwj0t7uHiFbdWm7v-QTFImgJMPr1GePQOghqrVEwlkv1nVWATWJna3MH3adH5AoidywKaNu09AZhvXDe3h_b6X-Rzf-AsRbCQbiLyC3nUu3w-cM7qSQmRAtuGR08Z_vHyx4RxggxpPbuFNmKRA2wArThdP6ZACINNtc-oWqrJGvk-xrGew%3D%3D>,
who rose above the racism she experienced at every stage of her career to
become known as 'the voice of a century,' and extend to the challenges
still facing female Black artists and performers today.

The event will be streamed live on our YouTube
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBPURVhmlbZJy5B_K97-U540VQbyx7Zb7ycQVZCYxEG2QqJypmI9WnuUkLdeDTGymFxo8oz3pn9D7WizBEpVwrSFrjKzePQ46FTdr2HP0pArufKh0D3U5tHHi8vs67fqqkOBl4icLMK_XGfrtC0Yo-7eSlOTgFllisVOnJOVPYWcB1A63GDUGrk34190gsV7oj_lgfmZxensT4J3XQGSrptKTaXpo9g-ZME0UofJdnGdnp1QaK1ss0zJ_zF95vseJtlHyhok36Aw_u_W2z4ZBU8k%3D>
and Facebook
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBJr4dGgD2b3qpNb3mknDaeBP3op11yq4l_MOSaXmb1CffbNTfVCeNwhV_VCq3IfWh-uEJ2Q1bGPy0bzhr85IGEZx-tarvNSZuBT0f3i26IZ8jEvAPll4sGZ0gyW95uBc6Sez0Qg_Y29eDtYJLqERZuPhxJ7trdhYwWvYKhEOmP2orff2a3dFBeUhG7hX_qWmGz6eeJTaoWegHDgUA6MwP4spHZWQAVBuD5r_ss1KB4mMlQcQmC77nSTFN02YHeHDKptebBLpK_5_CYcfglHREqw%3D>
pages. Register here
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBAiYRbcnGI43R0S2esng2oh2-aBPq0SrAHMiL36GTf2k_ZScge8FOMEN6S3N6IBO7tGtu9vGIwevP24V4fcJ2AQsFCjfoF01JZaZ9EkchDfLC4n_5JBujY7pzpBzjKvGceiRewW36zerGPGpv0i20mnpma9-I6Cb9dQ2qbrYH1QIvcfSrnvgxLBJoB8HtUoslvsGZk0m28LxpfKxzc7xBIZqYsj0v9NdxciBWoi6qT4EGzGnZIe4azbONiZlE_h5hSb4s3tK0lwZ4bAkFhodbiAj_IVmwW-dy_KjCKruuGMOYLI7_0ZCI2o6eiMHHdjyH-KfUNrz9Mc8K370_F-P2W1u2F54f3x-XIl5iaRGrDrAZqnk2o3uBAwzbTCNEXFDSg%3D%3D>
.
REGISTER NOW
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=7wKGQyvsTSQrdO2sSc-us-k2Unpu0OSUtMTsLgNVzlKlrMTYylgEFIv0yFX8H3-vQZx7jIpv6xq3f7SxtwL37FLMfyuej2CzoxOIVcgx36UBTerLPgcc8AzvEeMtiX3p-tB3PKuh-9OxgnDAlp9BNud4rd9CJinlO_spy_IevrFV2Bdgl2p2BtXTUscb5Y-3WXJ8jlK0fQ1kup5vGT8zgBV7c-gcay0-M877_xQ-ZaUFklrNCWQKb5XrjMx5RKitKZ3xm4f5_clj8pQfs-3sccHxaANEvPJGTDZzWh58UpUNan0CU4RyWCPrBBtOd0-uSPDjvz6aPVCm8A6htc122B4IuVLt67RHTPokFQN2u46ng6dbQB79kRhp7-wY5hopIoRRTnXpuRxmx1Q5vu_Org%3D%3D>
[image: Image of Poppy Northcutt standing in front of a blackboard.]
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBOVHvSpNWB78KZtsfCLTUowU-3hYqjTPyzpw4LoruT2PZZaRupjwCtX1STbi9cQPoDD-Bp82aZ6RlKr9PcNLq_u1vvPEI3hY8ixcSTMQlVEagGujS6AawvuehQm5bnEpTwZoMzmBPVogpqTIF5q6o9fL6z3B5ie0Oqu2PlfHgI_ZJE-KI21LDlXeE-Y13jWLTHdrfDg-hGxh-yiNhouwN8_yI5WP-9rAq5AWnK3Af6f2LzArMuHUWiQkryF56ChnnIVMiiBbM3MwOd5x_KnbBNXhRdQkhE_CjJxfMahi84qp4BrpBpKoXVuB5ZOCkFsIS1Sh4-RIMWwABgH0dRDcp91V_Y-eMcKNPj7j6Agjeg_4>

*Poppy Northcutt: Return to Earth specialist*
With other engineers, *Frances "Poppy" Northcutt* plotted return-to-Earth
trajectories for Apollo 8. Northcutt's team also troubleshot the Apollo 13
oxygen tank emergency. She worked at the Space Program for five years—one
of many women
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBOVHvSpNWB78KZtsfCLTUowU-3hYqjTPyzpw4LoruT2PZZaRupjwCtX1STbi9cQPoD5wy2r3nT9PAeqXfnRmNNnopTDE1CqwuD71wlz3NpaiO0HlGqNARe0YPvFeuhwhnW4jE73ty6Vz5ovRUe9MfbQgh-YymK-5MT6KH4T-EeID3h_v96GTMM_wSAtl217EQOBqpFkUG8SzdRqScFBicYB-LM1LNTDvwqYwbNaVzu_omXWJzCzgGtMbL4aTMlENr6O5jaoAl2iMDhxaEPhfYQEUKhYoAGb6cg1vP23i-hVzf4nUIbX49wHv9bCWPYd3FTmHVQXF-FdEoXpwamQeXWg%3D>
whose work as computers at NASA helped make the lunar landing possible.

Watch this short video
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=7wKGQyvsTSQrdO2sSc-us3K20fk1bvWflFZTzt1aHXngaujFtXRStXryOopwZjSL8cXdT9J5TCoPyaXaTAWC6yFE0Td1rCIBOv57H-vD7Ve0-NEj59_NbFtQAv6qRGih2j4Kh5e-E1vWWywVxQgZTVXMEQqacQNaIadjxFZJ9Cgzy0W8FIVofsWRY_aDSQCjZgQqS0m7vNMhag24S7GtBGGgS2kBSmNc9y-Tju24JVkN4cYLVbl2SsCqI7dPemVJZMutxAvrFbdrUzapP5wf3i9ysDL1vC6FBHYiZGbPJjKBytOZz19mQ_praTBaKGayZ0rhbAQLz16ddG_CVR-f81xpOko0Uj-UxzMxsG5SCzQ%3D>
to learn more about Northcutt, and watch the full *Chasing the Moon*
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBOVHvSpNWB78KZtsfCLTUowU-3hYqjTPyzpw4LoruT2PS915ajUNtAtqyquT3MJ-PGylEwDpE-NTpiWpKd4nx2IcmTgBqmPfggDzV-1j4ARFcD2dXhuZiT6pO5G3eEpydlhQYKOvchFx3MEUYrZ8cXgfmq1NZPLYQFGGs9pwAyehFTC3ejBDilSCUy5ZCWRgfp1hx5t0smzftVNe3zjjPCj3iIvUtD9gWMabi2i_Kjwy0DKJbWP2ZNnDTehLdDsFMQJU2Dcwt3a9pR1qO3MkWbgsoIbNlWWm76qZ214w97c8>
series on our website
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBOVHvSpNWB78KZtsfCLTUowU-3hYqjTPyzpw4LoruT2PS915ajUNtAtqyquT3MJ-PAMpl8Nv5d4bKX-m0ZC09Zs48m38C9yRZvvQVhetFxsJdYdMj8-9geMtGjMlMfsybAh3c900-iZ3KGInJ2vVTI83zdefkNXHHFJqyf6pieRpJfJvziOCk-Qg_hgJHBlH9WbUV_oSGtR77BWegd_PXmNquIQHQ6G78rAlSqH1fhmV7--vfSvAE9RNsphNjQwvkvLFV5HxnTsn_u8XM3MQ-jvSr0K37SyCXK6b7Yjaqblm>
or the PBS video app
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBBeNSXpASE95Q0PBqaaei1eXrRdhMEFwfwg5i_Yo4t558pZMrClwW59XcPY5ZQk2Ia7x6D19RWDxGPqt_7VJikJAMe1pbo4aa_UMnhurceM3iKDZTaOx9qcfOJmle0inLgLkHH16gqMIdLU_xxuYrLezO9A__Smy4gJLpsTe87Cy8qQ1W7Qi6ZQ47QX0gVMDApoQtO57LLR-3zafCwmpYOiaO68bIdNAqlPTGoouMCCuo7MI2JaY4mYVlOlEYv4TQhLbSU6jnUOHE1LA40C37N8%3D>
.
LEARN MORE HERE
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBOVHvSpNWB78KZtsfCLTUowU-3hYqjTPyzpw4LoruT2PZZaRupjwCtX1STbi9cQPoDD-Bp82aZ6RlKr9PcNLq_u1vvPEI3hY8ixcSTMQlVEagGujS6AawvuehQm5bnEpTwZoMzmBPVogpqTIF5q6o9c0EIrGicyB5CAlgMU-J_z6ylKylS9-P7aO4N_9_DqeyBEaxuYe04PxIkhH294GQZ1D-H_MqDOXs2GOPiNbny0-FhvJWZhUmvR-dfGDiyK26IJvqjyuq5Sf5Fke-HU8g4OzoxAsIzH9gl2ObfFiSbmX5X3En_bxGTE640aFsd8tiYNA5a6THyTxpLdfO_nEQzk_kBLjrr_F9twPB4iuPWeR>

*WATCH ON*
[image: Watch on PBS]
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBOVHvSpNWB78KZtsfCLTUowU-3hYqjTPyzpw4LoruT2PdLX1cr4mP14uNc1hnFOhm5dQBZRHt3333CmYy_uFLueR94G9KMw3AfREisre7Sn7iIDwLi0pmPI6gnmybGeAApTvo3L8lIzI7YLdpa8NFtDIqyloueFeUv4JASwCpOy8wioJbuX9o-XlYzKMU4v7u6CGyz2ygXmQZdWqdomkL0lPkw-hpGaVvjJGz1EID1LyxN0gNrVvD3jjAYUfNiFa0AyUJWHIsR7rE_lRfcWmJpQ%3D>
*JOIN THE CONVERSATION *
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[image:
Subscribe to the AMERICAN EXPERIENCE channel on YouTube]
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=7wKGQyvsTSQrdO2sSc-usxxYqj6-6yDRPHxF0ZIByIARvoSNxwStRz_1mLZvp5P5KDjNBQkUEgjcFgjltrIC5z1TyEMmukOujPXChEUZfv0A-XTciXlSjN3h7zAm7aoxkN-57sYqbvdZuZ6-XY1BOaFiX5syJ7DKlfCUZHGezw4YeDkhVFZoRPjXwWKrEC-VyhfACTBwr286JmXOEpj4LEp1Pz5jfpWJPHyaf69_0QQt9OzPe0Y0CLpeEs1RBx-92emqXg2OwW1m562D0iwAsap4g0Dn6l6E7mk10-qOUug%3D>


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<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=k-0YX3VPdHjpcP2rp_nFBBygmupc6kQave2Voq5FHn2y30tRS4oJPeW_VODfIlvd9wY7RvSjaa0PnM2vZmHFyzb4G2Q_xsYPAK1cLQ7KlVG9oVel1wlCmS30t33aC5b5l6DnK7mYaQ66SSOmQPBphnuN2XoPeqYfcfVzztvl3vkVtZgo-lUkbXF720tmPtxqeZQJH_W3CnZqwpFxd12BUAZEdQqlBhor_nXKXYI_zbq5Ukns0yI8gs7y5PscMnf5Vr8yf7w5cOTPxUT1nYGVnQimz3Tb7jIaUT-sjbPXIT6M2Nv7IRHPwPdKBuoKTXce53Wvd1TyymMQUJGl3RdpBPzrGBqhbEToTpMC5nEif9U%3D>
[image: Cloth American Flag]

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Additional funding provided by the Robert David Lion Gardiner Foundation,
The Documentary Investment Group, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting
and public television viewers.  *American Experience*  is produced for PBS
by WGBH Boston.
[image: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation]
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=5sMW_2ayqBMI13GzdxudGZmzdfp0jADzxFPy2AGDnXC_ZjfLeEJaxU7qsVy-8jQnT1LvPEwXEdgri2HBw9ejblSDc_7PgEp8zYtNLKDxt6-pt9o4zQebMdxOpLt738fZ66bTN362PfVHU14ABklB7kWhImbslYXVr09EODMWo4id1th1FtrNZVBMrkOBpyTjsaGGZ_nm9iOcn2-8yG79VWTkoKpzVHkCSejZso6jUV0lwI-oytad6PiTU1ORjayt>[image:
Robert D.L. Gardiner Foundation]
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=7wKGQyvsTSQrdO2sSc-us3soGEiR0a2zaSuK7c4fMwZYt01yy3tQ8l0DMeDjab_p2mmAciby7eyEER8Q59yZmjsWC4ZzYCCWj8oK3BK8T0o1zz5p_3hSmGS3G5X3oIwvINGZoA_En0HkRzpLVxg2Lpvy0fqgwWCnqPZUQ4Nc8naFibQNwJmF3XDehwGSPTzxmcqSeOXVhJ9wKED-9sUrCzj_m8LOTPemjDn65eRYLccX2fs9XC5LzIfC1LMppWgIZM-BHL_J44ndDold9qPf-A%3D%3D>[image:
Documentary Investment Group]
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=7wKGQyvsTSQrdO2sSc-us2qW00NNS4ANxyxPcGPMJVnlSPo7piMjbucNn_Aaqeyw_9306XaLMEnaYiGBRH__msgIbKcHXaA19KqrWHsjU802ii3sNp2HDG-UK0vU-CHXxzSDhGYLolHxOJ2mBvP8QNRwGp2A61fJUhWIvcP76YlsIrK_1GzdqYBm8ulw_PWPnt8YBVph1cQhhgnW1LRxL11irJvbZXvhkrGXf0fHJhIsESiai6-m9VmNy-Ck0uNJTic7vr6GD8296KtYDbxFg_fkbZpvvPXlAVzb80LUZMvPWeS5qby4W64Tqw8xC85N>
[image: Corporation for Public Broadcasting]
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=7wKGQyvsTSQrdO2sSc-us7AC-lI4ziBmx0rOm-JFBAEKr91zeWyMw6PXZOgHpYYw-eK76K6mwN-ga5zqmIFMHarympSwBGyQ97PjFHL802PvOUgsdniD66MZOWl6uuXXnZOJr5FWm_TtmnrcpPMti_G40z-b7kiQH7-IGHV0IrdSCBfOwH6Dpmg0lijSm50wrfD7rvME2Nhn2BgC4hz6t0Vuzeb2MHHvWt85btowNXYSqHpgBlhjZXkdjD2buXSM>[image:
WGBH]
<http://links.americanexperience.wgbh.org/u/click?_t=d580955bad7c4746b6352c3f5498d530&_m=d5d2c39ddbcf4f38a61c2d4bdaa6daad&_e=7wKGQyvsTSQrdO2sSc-us5aXWvEx0eoSyTjxR85VrBuioLF2nyZQl6CeDLgDk1uRSsCb6crJ69ynHL-xgSNdm8UtF5YKpchGxZq28vDDqRbRJ4FPvGGZqX1MH8k363bugPIcPNeykD2zrHhefwFIGnqs4C58L5uDxfhok_xKFEbtA-XU9n1ZQAPzQ3vDYFAnO9iOvzzCT9xi1jHayNfigx_Vqm9bRSE7YE8otR4YD-n097ycXqJfQLSeod8-OgKK>
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