[Blackstudies-l] The Ugly Origins of Crime Statistics and Other Flawed "Science" behind Mass Incarceration

Maria Helena Lima lima at geneseo.edu
Thu Sep 2 10:49:16 EDT 2021


Our last
recap! ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌
‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌
‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌ ‌
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVUsuOozAQ_JpwC7KNIXDgkE2GbGaG7I7y2NlckLEbcMJrsQmCr18zOY1st6wuVZXlas405E03hm2jtDWXRI8thDUMqgStobN6BV0iRUgJ9h2KXMtcBfZd35IqyTqAisky1F0PVtunpeRMy6aeGa6DA2QVocswdbMApR7yEYUV4ZlZPgciUs8gT1_WCwk1hxAe0I1NDVYZFlq3auGsFyQyW91l24IopNLmybbqU6UZv9u8qQzamqMLWGYlG0AsWZf3FdRaLXXB9FJ3Ms-hA7FwIt3coV44WxhfMSeX8ZOU9_2tQfHthcbTx3A4DpLvgklEQXvd7L3Ddk3j0wuJp7XaV2UhTC8-_Z3i7dk1HHLYDJJ9HiajIfnPi3w_naf4dB_20ug4F_nVn_U2eLz-iW5iVz5S-RrYw_Ut-SCHgjW_-PE9qkvv-DvOIF_-2yUPrznn8rj5wTLtvSlLhgQRjAJTKHbdwMY2QnglOGGUBil3OOXMpytwAj9FWCA3WFBU5eTbP1ldWMqKGSSHGhQ0Noh-zi0xYNXXUo8J1CwtQTwj1c_J-Ao5mTmdmRiRMB1izzEeBHvuCgfPCOcpQT6eEcu4isaw6vB7bP8B0gbUqQ>
The flawed arguments that triggered mass incarceration
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVUsuOozAQ_JpwC7KNIXDgkE2GbGaG7I7y2NlckLEbcMJrsQmCr18zOY1st6wuVZXlas405E03hm2jtDWXRI8thDUMqgStobN6BV0iRUgJ9h2KXMtcBfZd35IqyTqAisky1F0PVtunpeRMy6aeGa6DA2QVocswdbMApR7yEYUV4ZlZPgciUs8gT1_WCwk1hxAe0I1NDVYZFlq3auGsFyQyW91l24IopNLmybbqU6UZv9u8qQzamqMLWGYlG0AsWZf3FdRaLXXB9FJ3Ms-hA7FwIt3coV44WxhfMSeX8ZOU9_2tQfHthcbTx3A4DpLvgklEQXvd7L3Ddk3j0wuJp7XaV2UhTC8-_Z3i7dk1HHLYDJJ9HiajIfnPi3w_naf4dB_20ug4F_nVn_U2eLz-iW5iVz5S-RrYw_Ut-SCHgjW_-PE9qkvv-DvOIF_-2yUPrznn8rj5wTLtvSlLhgQRjAJTKHbdwMY2QnglOGGUBil3OOXMpytwAj9FWCA3WFBU5eTbP1ldWMqKGSSHGhQ0Noh-zi0xYNXXUo8J1CwtQTwj1c_J-Ao5mTmdmRiRMB1izzEeBHvuCgfPCOcpQT6eEcu4isaw6vB7bP8B0gbUqQ>Our
last recap!

<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVkM1uwyAQhJ8m3Grxa-MDh176GhaGdYJiA4Klld--ODlFQstKo2GYz1mEeyqnyakiucaCZwYT4a_ugAiFtAplCd5IzrSQVJG-eqaVJqEuWwE4bNgNlgYkt3UPzmJI8XIowWZKHkbrcZMWvBVWCErV1K-NjxYcbB76i69c23yA6MDAL5QzRSC7eSDmehPfN_7TT32GnME_QsX-5aG2taJ1z8Glo6sZUt6hL5PWaqTT1wrxC9sRIgmGU87o3IdkSs0DGyhlk3fcSjmvTjjprJYTiFmvlHmq5pukx51_ZJBi9nDYrtwhQoU0gG9X56WLR4sBzwWiXXfwbxz4pvoCtFye0mn7xaJho-gZnI1qYvO7_kWYanYppKf61F3RfFb-BxQWkFM>
Ben Tumin
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVkM1uwyAQhJ8m3Grxa-MDh176GhaGdYJiA4Klld--ODlFQstKo2GYz1mEeyqnyakiucaCZwYT4a_ugAiFtAplCd5IzrSQVJG-eqaVJqEuWwE4bNgNlgYkt3UPzmJI8XIowWZKHkbrcZMWvBVWCErV1K-NjxYcbB76i69c23yA6MDAL5QzRSC7eSDmehPfN_7TT32GnME_QsX-5aG2taJ1z8Glo6sZUt6hL5PWaqTT1wrxC9sRIgmGU87o3IdkSs0DGyhlk3fcSjmvTjjprJYTiFmvlHmq5pukx51_ZJBi9nDYrtwhQoU0gG9X56WLR4sBzwWiXXfwbxz4pvoCtFye0mn7xaJho-gZnI1qYvO7_kWYanYppKf61F3RfFb-BxQWkFM>
Sep 2
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVUk2PozAM_TXltigJoSUHDlWn7VIVRrtbbT8uKCSmTfkUCWXor98wnT2MFDmxnxw_209wA9emG8O20caZTGrGFsIaBl2CMdA5vYYuVTKkBAceRb5jnxIHfuAoneYdQMVVGZquB6fts1IJblRTTxm-hxlybiHmHiMBxkzgecYzuiB-jjxEaT7Pc7Rgr7q8lwpqASE8oBubGpwyvBnT6pm3nJGNPbpQbQvyprSxlF3dZ9pwUbiiqSzKW2XtA1sz_WevT2Y_OuBiYjTzNqYpwN5vMO6wIH_HEymL6N6g-L6m8fPXkPwZlNiyp9yw9rKK5snbksaHNYmfSx3Vu_J8TBA_st7mKNqSIlKD4scNsv5Hco-H5FCM8eGM9qtdK7xYvavdII-RSQ7xx_thqWz8af0pPl6Om7vclo9M7ZiL1ttTXvh6nw9XUfT763g-r38mzemyCq7bMf9NH3xYQzksoxmZ96ZKddN3Amwv_6fwFa9Aqr6aepyad1RIEMGIWUOx7zMXuwjhhRSEU8oy4QkqeEAX4LEgQ1gin80oqq7k23SdLixVxS1yhRo0NC7Iftp2asGqr5UZU6h5VoJ8CcG89PTJIZ1yOqszmXIT4rlnaxA89xf4a_GTtpCVh0UcW1U2NqsOvy_7H-C-5e8>
[image:
Comment]
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVUtuS2jAM_RryRiZ2rn7IA4WFsruh3eHSLS8ZxxaJIbfaDpnk6-tA-7AztsZzpCPJOmJUQ97IIW4bpa3JpHpoIa6hVyVoDdLqFMhU8NjDKHI9x7fMk6PIjyyh0osEqKgoYy07sNouKwWjWjT1xPBdRByriKMgDD3kMs_3eUSCzAswIgYgbsgd8NGzLu24gJpBDHeQQ1ODVcaF1q2auYsZXpujbqJtgRdCadOyrbpMacpuNmsq423N1QXMLyXtgc-pzLsKaq3muqB6rqXIc5DATZSJf3hm7lo3N6hn7gqGV8TwafjE5W17bZzk-uIl40e_2_eCbcjI16Q9L7fBbrXwksMLTsaF2lZlwQ2WHH6PyeroGw7eLXtBP3ejySHY95N4PxzH5HDrt8LkcU_igU_5lmg4_1pf-aa8Z-KV2P35Lf3Au4I2P9j-fV2Xwf5ncoF8_meT3oPmmIv98hu96OBNzXDQ6SpVTScZmN7_z-EfXgEXXTX9aRLGEjF2MHKIMR7yfWIj23FQyBmmnkcyZmRhNPJCcEmUOYg7Ppl5TpXjL_O1ZFyKihpPDjUoaGzg3aR3Og2zq4UeUqhpVgJ_roJ-btSjh3TiSLNpPKU6RoFramAU-CEiT-mn7XIiNHksU5U3hlXHX-X-C8Z150E>
[image:
Share]
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVUtuOmzAQ_Zrwlsg2l8ADD2mySbO7pF3l0m1ekLEn4AQwtc0i-Po1SSt1JXtkn_E54xkdRg3kUvVxI7VxxpCavoG4hk6XYAwop9WgUsFjj-DQ9ZDv2CPHoR86QqcXBVBRUcZGteA0bVYKRo2Q9cjwXRwhp4gvmM7DOULcJ2HmkgDji0cgZCxA2AOKH3VpywXUDGL4ANXLGpwyLoxp9MRdTMjaLn0TTQO8ENrYL890m2lD2W3GZGWzjd2mgOmlpB3wKVV5W0Ft9NQU1EyNEnkOCvjEXbemSrVsFYOJu_qnMiHBiFfARVtZ_N7WX5DJ2lip8XVBFViUsrHJ_wAjbzDeoX_GjJz6d1LetleJkuuTlwxv3W7fCbaJBr6OmvNyG-xWCy85PJFkWOhtVRbcYsnh95Csjr7lkN2yE_R9N1gNwb6fxOvhOCSHW7cVVsc9iTs-6i1xf_61vvJN-ZGJ52jWnV_SN7IrqPzB9q_rugz2P5ML5NM_m_QjkMdc7Jff6MUEL9oRMUEEo8gGD_t-NMMzhPCcM0I9L8qYyzxGQ28ObhRmCHPkRxMPVTn5MntHxaWoqM3kUIMGOQPejl6wc6uqthamT6GmWQn8YRPzcNt9wunIUdaFPKUmxoFraxAc-HMcPWwxOg-FeMw4tiqXllXHX63wCa3_8bM>
At the beginning of Season 3, we’ll cover the Attica Prison uprising of
1971. The 50th anniversary of that stunning event is one week from today.
In preparation, for our third and final recap, let’s discuss a subject that
can’t be discussed enough: *mass incarceration*.

*With over two million people incarcerated today,* the US has the largest
prison population in the world. The pandemic has underscored the inhumanity
of the conditions that incarcerated people face. According to JAMA
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJwtkU1uwyAQhU8TlhZgsM2CRTe9hsXPOKHBYMHQyLcvTiqhGZinp0_zcAbhnsupj1yRXGXF8wCd4FUjIEIhrUJZg9eCs2UUVJJ-9WyRCwl13QrAbkLUWBqQo9kYnMGQ0-WQI1OUPLSc3Qbcy8lOahNczqP1llmj7CjEJqYP1zQfIDnQ8AvlzAlI1A_Eo97Grxv_7ufH7CYBvnJ5Di7v1yS3kkys_2JvW4vRFAwuQn_xeVq4UCRoTjmjqhfBpFQDGyhls3fcCKGsG51wZhEzjGqxlHkq1U3Q_c6H2mxF495AUnQMnSLoHRJUyAP4di29dnFvKeC5QjI2gv_kgZ9Y3wmtl6f0uP1qULNp7AzOJjkz9dn_ipgu7FJIp_rcXUnXZzgO8I9QsX_TH7VAj6s>,
the infection rate for covid-19 was five times higher among state and
federal prisoners than among the general population, and an incarcerated
person with the virus was three times more likely to die than a
non-incarcerated person who got infected.¹

But the US didn’t always have a lethal, mammoth penal system. In fact, the
US prison population only began to spike in the early 1970s:
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVUsuO5CAM_JrmlohngAOH0Ur7GxEPdxp1AhkgM9Pz9Us6p5WQXdgql2Xb2wZLLi-z59rQaeb22sEk-K4rtAYFHRXKHIPhlCjGsUAdBqKEQrHO9wKw2biaVg5A--HW6G2LOZ0MwYjG6GGAqiClmNRENWFqchPcqdB36y1mXsOla48QIXkw8AXllROg1Txa2-uNfdzo3_58SGM9XG3WP0eftx6Km12g-zs0_zh9L9Pyjf75vAD7WHIO_X9f573kpUCt8Qt6vDaAvTMuCSpOEXHKdOMO_4SeLwNg4ZxXfHDWsoEzCYMWRA02OEYdSKkVHysb7WZ_c7Lf9eqr17hm8YbvJusbaulknwoMk3Zy4JiywTnwQ3CAGZsC4VTOE8E_XIpxTwuKhmJKsO6GEyH0SEaMiQyeWs6188xzbxWXwLRymAQs9I3jbaH_TQoVs_YuemaBBBXyCOE41zX35Hak2F4zJOtWCNcm23UQ793OJ6f0QwmzbYZMrGtQMglJ9LW58ziwImcGddWQOyuZ-oz7DuERa-sH9g89EMdm>

What caused the dramatic spike in incarceration rates? In Season 1, we
investigated two reasons.
The Ugly Origins of Crime Statistics

Per the Sentencing Project
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxNkcFuwyAQRL8m3GwBhtgcOPTS37AwbJxtbUCwbpS_L64vldAKNAyD3nhHsKbytjlVYueY6Z3BRnjVDYigsKNCmTFYJcU0KK5Z2wYx6YlhnR8FYHe4WSoHsHwsG3pHmOLp0IMwnD2tWGActJbGezDBm_sDhHxI7cwoJ6eWK9cdASF6sPAD5Z0isM0-iXK9DR83-dnW6_XqK0RqtzCuuaQv8NSnsjbtX3RtR5-2VLr06L6OSuihK86j2zoXQwf0jOi7gDW7gvTuMHaVGoguF6yXn6GVXApu2lBCa9OLnnMxBi-dUmbxg1feTWqEwUwLF4Frc1N8X2Vfj6W95r97n3ZW7Ia7a8oKESqkHsJxYpqbuB-xpc8Q3bJBuAjSVcQf0_n0lPavMDuy4j60DCnuehTmInaWwidxKqylhtRc0dZvzBnCEyu1Yn8B8Jekow>,
one cause is rooted in “disproportionate levels of police contact with
African Americans” and, by extension, disproportionate arrest rates. For
example, although drug use rates don’t differ much by race, more than one
in four people arrested for drug law violations in 2015 was Black.

In many ways, this disparity can be traced back to a 19th-century actuary
named Frederick Hoffman.²
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVUsuu3CAM_ZrJLhHPBBYsrir1NyIeTobeBFIg93b69XUmq0rIHGwdH2Pb2wZrLi9z5Nq6y8ztdYBJ8F03aA1Kd1YocwxGMKq4ILJDGKiSqot1XgrAbuNmWjmhO063RW9bzOliSE416Z7Gjt56prmDxRPqyGj5KAnxWmlh_UJuXXuGCMmDgS8or5yg28yztaM--MeD_cTjQxrq6Wqz_nPweUdX3O0KeC_Q_PO6MU3LD_bj9w34x5pzwPeyzUfJa4Fa4xegvzaAAxm3BJOXiLxk0LjTfwLGSw9EOueV6J21vBd8gl5LqnobHGcOpkkrMVQ-2N3-zcl-17suzHH34g3fRdY3nHxgygnag9K0F0RRTEVED9PIiF_EJIDOgus_IyXDrwPWLhpGGCUajaBS6oEOhNApeGaF0M5zL7xVYgKulSM0EKkfguwr-69VXTEbloGRFRJUyAOE85rXjMH9TLG9ZkjWbRDuUbZ7I97DnS9OwU0Js22Gjhw1GB3lRPU9ums78CtXpEPVkJGVTP2MxwHhGWvDDfsHuDfH-g>
Frederick
Hoffman

How? In the 1890s, new nondiscrimination laws forced life insurance
companies to offer Black people the same benefits for the same premiums
they guaranteed to white people. Prudential Insurance, one of the leading
sellers of life insurance at the time, wasn’t so keen on the new
legislation.

So, the company hired Fred, known for his statistical prowess (and for
being married to the daughter of a renowned slave-owning family), to prove
that discriminating against Black people was statistically justifiable.

Fred came through, publishing a book called *Race Traits of the American
Negro* (1896). Using unsound statistical analyses—for example, comparing
arrest rates of Black people with Norwegians, the whitest people in the
world—Fred “proved” that “criminality” was part of “the Negro’s... inherent
moral nature.” Though people like W.E.B. DuBois castigated Hoffman’s
“unscientific use of the statistical method,” Fred’s book spread among
legislators looking to justify the Jim Crow laws that were then taking
shape.

Soon, Fred’s argument blaming crime on race became embedded in
justifications for policing all around the country. As we explored in the
first-ever episode of Skipped, Fred’s analysis continues to inform
discriminatory policing tactics that lock up disproportionate levels of
people of color:
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJwlUctqwzAQ_BrraPRM5IMOhRJyKvTUo9Fjk4jYktGjxn9fqYZld9lhGGbW6gLPmA61xVxQb3M5NlAB9rxAKZBQzZBm7xSnRDKOBWqrI1JI5PP8SACr9osqqQLaqlm81cXH0BmCkQmjl8KMPpyduCRAqTXCXihxkgggmLdpTl1dnYdgQcEvpCMGQIt6lbLlgX0M9NZq3_fxiLVUA6ONa7_oYl8Du_0O7PP-FS27_9z14xt5RTEleGqNEyGmkYwYk6uzVHM-Gcsst1ryK7BJGkwcFtPA8fqkY64mF23fXQAltfhVN-QJATLEEVztJucGrjX4cswQtFnAnf7LGeN_InPnpBavm3VR5MKaBiUXcSXT6bdHiiXpCGqqLjZWUPnttw3cy-fS3vIH-COJpw>
------------------------------
How One Guy’s Daddy Issues *Also *Helped Inspired Mass Incarceration

Another culprit in the rise of mass incarceration? An aide in LBJ’s Labor
Department named Daniel Patrick Moynihan.³
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVUsuu3CAM_ZrJLhHPAAsWV5X6GxEPJ0NvElIg93b69XUmq0pgG46Oj2U7uAZLLi975Nq6y0ztdYDd4buu0BqU7qxQphStYFRzQWSHYaRa6i7VaS4Am0urbeWE7jj9moJrKe8XQ3JqSPe0IcyBBKQoJWanPBuD4DyAGOnovdK3rjtjgj2AhS8or7xDt9pna0d98I8H-4knxH2op6_Nhc8h5A2_0uYWQD9DC8_LY5qWH-zH7zvgH0vOEd_zOh0lLwVqTV-A_7UBHMi4JZi8ROQlg8af4RMQLz0Q6X3QovfO8V5wBb2RVPcues48KGW0GCof3Ob-5t1917suzHH34h2-i6zvEBQTQcXYs3k0vYgw9j5K0-OFEQIfI_ETI0L_oVzx4dcBS5csI4wSg0ZQKc1AB0KoioE5IYwPPIjgtFDAjfaERiLNQ5BtYf81qyt2xUIQWWCHCnmAeF4TmxDczj211wS78yvEe5jt3on3eKeLU3BX4uSapSNHDUZHqai5h3ftB9H0QjpUjRlZu62f6TggPlNtuGP_AMu9yUs>
Daniel
Patrick Moynihan

In the 1960s, the US witnessed the worst domestic bloodshed since the Civil
War. During widespread protests over the five summers of LBJ’s presidency,
hundreds of Black Americans died, thousands of officers and civilians were
injured, and billions of dollars of property was destroyed.

Why were people so heated? Well, according to a *Washington Post* poll in
1967, “7 in every ten Negroes [said] that lack of decent housing
contributed to the riots.”⁴ But thanks to Moynihan, LBJ came to see the
protests less as a response to things like oppressive living conditions
than as a manifestation of “the breakdown” of Black families.

In 1965, Danny Boy published an internal government report titled “The
Negro Family: The Case for National Action.”
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJwtkM2OhCAQhJ9muK3hd5QDh73saxiEHiWjYKAZ49svrpsQUqToVNfnLMKc8mn2VJBc14jnDibCUVZAhExqgTwGbyRng5BUkSY9G9RAQhlfGWCzYTWYK5C9TmtwFkOK14QSTFOyGKcoHzTl0tEn08q_VC8Y7Z3zQvS9hjvXVh8gOjDwgXymCGQ1C-JeHuL7wX_aOY6j82nt5vRprxkiZLs2ZadUsRlNLqFgq3N9hin4ry2dMSw2kmA45Yy2LZhkSumOdZSy3jtupdSTE046O8gehB4myjxV-iHpNvOu1Kmgde_OpY1ks4bNNudKL5A68PWqPTZzqzHgOUK00wr-JoI32D9G470xgh8tGvYULYOzp-qZvglckOnALoe0VJ_aVDTlHfYd_H-zX7LkkMU>
In the report, Moynihan blamed Black mothers for the issues young Black men
faced in the 60s, arguing that “a matriarchal structure… imposes a crushing
burden on the Negro male.”

Of course, Moynihan, who had no experience as a Black man but was well
practiced at being angry at his mom, might’ve been projecting just *a tad*.

When he was 10 years old, Daniel’s father left his family, plunging them
into poverty and forcing them to move to New York, where his mother worked
odd jobs to support herself and Danny Boy. Years later, Moynihan still
blamed her for his dad’s departure, admitting to having “repressed feelings
towards mom” and “enormous emotional attachment to Father substitutes.”

Red flags aside, Moynihan’s personal-experience-infused report was a gift
to the government. It meant politicians could say the problems Black people
faced weren’t structural but pathological (Frederick Hoffman would agree!).
And, indeed, months after reading Moynihan’s report, LBJ launched the War
on Crime to help stem the crime that he believed resulted from “the
breakdown of the Negro family structure.”

That new “war” led to increased policing of communities of color, which
also helped trigger the rise of mass incarceration:
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJwlUU1vhSAQ_DVyNCygDw4c2jTv1t56Nnzs89GnaARq_PfFmmwmm51MJjPrTMZx2Q69LimTE4Z8rKgj7mnCnHEjJeE2BK8FA8kF7UhdPchOkpCGx4Y4mzDpvBUka7FTcCaHJZ6KjoOi5KmtZPyhAHyvgHemN4i2NxxAmIewnl2-pviA0aHGX9yOJSKZ9DPnNTX8rWH3Ovu-t8dScrHYumU-Lya7Z8Pvvw3_-Bpn8_Mu78P3JwmaUQZUVRDQdaqFllK4eceMEMo67oQzUtyQK2kpeNqpRtB5ZG0qNmXjXqcB2fQUZlOZESMmXFr05Qw5VHIuMeRjwGjshP7Kn68a_xsZTs1W6_WDyRp6Xj0Y9N0N1JX3rJRKOBlSXf1SVVGnV1hX9M-Qcn3LH3WGihw>
------------------------------

*My point is: *thanks to people like Fred and Danny Boy, the US’ penal
system, which locks up millions of people and now exposes them to more
lethal conditions than ever, is rooted in some pretty *flawed *rationale.

And maybe the most stunningly weak argument supporting mass incarceration
appeared in late 1971. Not by coincidence, prisoner frustrations had just
reached a boiling point at Attica. Tune in next week to learn more about
that bit of Skipped History ☺️

Your skipper,

Ben

*P.S. Premium subscribers, I’ll send out a sneak peek on Monday or Tuesday!*
1

h/t to this
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJwlUc3OpCAQfJrhhuHPUQ4cvsv3GgahVTIKBnBn3affZiYhTYVOUZUqZyusKd_mTKWSNqZ6n2AivMsOtUImV4E8BW-U4KNUrCcIPR_7kYQyLRngsGE3NV9Azmveg7M1pNgYveSakc1o8VwGGNQs9eCY1v3i5MD9qGARSvL5q2svHyA6MPAH8p0ikN1stZ7lIX8e4hfP-_3u0Nid8gty59KBb4dd7b8QAaFgguPFxoYlDkuXsG6V1kThL2oArRvQLXgPkW7XYSN1qFxoWmiIzmYH-WOeBNM-YxqH4n2vO94xxgfvhFVKz0465eyoBpB6nBn3rNcPxY5VdOWaS7Xu1eyRbPZwWNysEKFA6sBfLaQJl8cVQ70niHbewX_zq98aPolOjYN2wE-2Gv6UqCH4sx-4_ubVKmEjbxuCqj4hK5ryCucJfgulYq3_ATaLoA8>*New
Yorker
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJwlUc3OpCAQfJrhhuHPUQ4cvsv3GgahVTIKBnBn3affZiYhTYVOUZUqZyusKd_mTKWSNqZ6n2AivMsOtUImV4E8BW-U4KNUrCcIPR_7kYQyLRngsGE3NV9Azmveg7M1pNgYveSakc1o8VwGGNQs9eCY1v3i5MD9qGARSvL5q2svHyA6MPAH8p0ikN1stZ7lIX8e4hfP-_3u0Nid8gty59KBb4dd7b8QAaFgguPFxoYlDkuXsG6V1kThL2oArRvQLXgPkW7XYSN1qFxoWmiIzmYH-WOeBNM-YxqH4n2vO94xxgfvhFVKz0465eyoBpB6nBn3rNcPxY5VdOWaS7Xu1eyRbPZwWNysEKFA6sBfLaQJl8cVQ70niHbewX_zq98aPolOjYN2wE-2Gv6UqCH4sx-4_ubVKmEjbxuCqj4hK5ryCucJfgulYq3_ATaLoA8>*
article
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJwlUc3OpCAQfJrhhuHPUQ4cvsv3GgahVTIKBnBn3affZiYhTYVOUZUqZyusKd_mTKWSNqZ6n2AivMsOtUImV4E8BW-U4KNUrCcIPR_7kYQyLRngsGE3NV9Azmveg7M1pNgYveSakc1o8VwGGNQs9eCY1v3i5MD9qGARSvL5q2svHyA6MPAH8p0ikN1stZ7lIX8e4hfP-_3u0Nid8gty59KBb4dd7b8QAaFgguPFxoYlDkuXsG6V1kThL2oArRvQLXgPkW7XYSN1qFxoWmiIzmYH-WOeBNM-YxqH4n2vO94xxgfvhFVKz0465eyoBpB6nBn3rNcPxY5VdOWaS7Xu1eyRbPZwWNysEKFA6sBfLaQJl8cVQ70niHbewX_zq98aPolOjYN2wE-2Gv6UqCH4sx-4_ubVKmEjbxuCqj4hK5ryCucJfgulYq3_ATaLoA8>
by Eyal Press for clueing me into JAMA’s report
2

Info on Hoffman comes from *The Condemnation of Blackness
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJwlUcuOhCAQ_JrhaHgqHDjsZX7D8GgdMgqGxxr_fnFNSNPp6kqlqp2psKZ86SOViu4y1-sAHeEsG9QKGbUCeQ5ec0ok41ig3noihUShzEsG2E3YdM0N0NHsFpypIcWbIRhRGH20oNwRaSlfRk4Eo97yRdhFjcYaDtI_uqb5ANGBhl_IV4qANv2p9Sgv9vOi7_7O8xxC7Fs2teiHlNc-tCl9-6cmiceJUyYJFyhoiinBqpeuKNRABozJ5B01nCvrmOPOSD4BU9Ji4rFQL473lQ6l2VKN-w4u7SjrLeymIytEKJAG8O02OXdwbzHUa4Zo7Ab-8V-fGP8TmW9O7vH62VRNRtY1KBnFRNTj944US3IjqKv61FlRl284DvCfUGo_yx9hrYjI>*,
by Khalil Gibran Muhammad
3

Info on Moynihan comes from *From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJwlUUluxCAQfM1wtAADhgOHXPINxNLxoLHBYonl3wfHEmpaXZSqq_C2wZrLpY9cG7qLadcBOsFZN2gNCuoViolBM0rkzDBHow1EcoliNT8FYLdx0610QEd3W_S2xZxuBp-JwuitrXASKFkocdJRipUVIGFWVFqBZ_bz6NoeIiQPGn6hXDkB2vS7taO-5q8X_R7nPM8ppvHK5Z7ClMs6hi7nz7jUIrFYmFqUpAJFTTElWI3CCOdqIhPGZAmeWsaU87Nn3kq2jCWkwyRgrl4M7yudane1Wf-ZfN5R0Vvc7UBWSFAhTxD6bdIMcO8ptstAsm6D8PhvT4z_iZibU0a8wdimiZiHBiWCL0Q9fu9IsSQ3goZqyIOVdP3E44DwjrWNb_kD0-WISg>*
,
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJwlUUluxCAQfM1wtAADhgOHXPINxNLxoLHBYonl3wfHEmpaXZSqq_C2wZrLpY9cG7qLadcBOsFZN2gNCuoViolBM0rkzDBHow1EcoliNT8FYLdx0610QEd3W_S2xZxuBp-JwuitrXASKFkocdJRipUVIGFWVFqBZ_bz6NoeIiQPGn6hXDkB2vS7taO-5q8X_R7nPM8ppvHK5Z7ClMs6hi7nz7jUIrFYmFqUpAJFTTElWI3CCOdqIhPGZAmeWsaU87Nn3kq2jCWkwyRgrl4M7yudane1Wf-ZfN5R0Vvc7UBWSFAhTxD6bdIMcO8ptstAsm6D8PhvT4z_iZibU0a8wdimiZiHBiWCL0Q9fu9IsSQ3goZqyIOVdP3E44DwjrWNb_kD0-WISg>
by Elizabeth Hinton; and from “THE BLACK FAMILY IN THE AGE OF MASS
INCARCERATION
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJwlUcuOrSAQ_JrDTsNTYcHibu5vmBZaJaNoBOfE-fpp5ySkqHSlUp3qABXn_bz9sZfKHhjqfaDP-C4r1oonuwqeQ4peS2GV5oYRjcIay1IZphNxg7T6el7IjmtcU4Ca9vw4jBKOs8UL68BEhQFh5F1np35UFnspHExOYffJhSsmzAE9fuN57xnZ6pdaj_JS_17yP733-93WBaGukGsKbdg3mm4ww0_KSBTOsKTvh0kuDH2CE5ClGVcIX80EW1rvJuXmmcGMzT41G5RCo0BmPP92J4_mSuqOCEtecim4I9DCGNeKlnPRxyBBazcGFXQAq3tUzo5cRG7cS_Ntlm25xlIp9tmTnX5NG5AyY8aCe4vxevoaSNyunOo9YIZxxfipsn4u8lfu8HhoNYwDVC86RRlSdKYX7lPdcx1uxaMwSo07ubIvX-k4MC6pVLrwLxlJots>,”
by Ta-Nehisi Coates in *The Atlantic*
4

Info on systemic inequality that led to protests in the 60s comes from *Race
for Profit
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJwlUUmO5CAQfE1xtFjLcODQl_4GYkm7UNlgsYzl3w9ui1SCiAyFItLbBmsulz5ybehupl0H6ARn3aA1KKhXKCYGzSmRjGOBxjMQKSSK1SwFYLdx0610QEd3W_S2xZxuhmBEYfTRnmNvZ6YofS9WSKyAceFw4BIvjC740bU9REgeNPyDcuUEaNOf1o76Yj8v-jvqPM8ppjHlck9hymUdny7n77jULIngZBzKKYqaYkqwGo0TIdREJozJHDy1nCvnmefeSj4DU9JhErBQL473lU61u9qs_04-76joLe52ICskqJAnCP02aQa49xTbZSBZt0F4_Lcnxr9EzM0pI95gbNPkzYYGJW8xE_X4vSPFktwIGqohD1bS9RuPA8In1jbW8h-0G4gm>,*
by Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVUk2PozAM_TXltigJoSUHDlWn7VIVRrtbbT8uKCSmTfkUCWXor98wnT2MFDmxnxw_209wA9emG8O20caZTGrGFsIaBl2CMdA5vYYuVTKkBAceRb5jnxIHfuAoneYdQMVVGZquB6fts1IJblRTTxm-hxlybiHmHiMBxkzgecYzuiB-jjxEaT7Pc7Rgr7q8lwpqASE8oBubGpwyvBnT6pm3nJGNPbpQbQvyprSxlF3dZ9pwUbiiqSzKW2XtA1sz_WevT2Y_OuBiYjTzNqYpwN5vMO6wIH_HEymL6N6g-L6m8fPXkPwZlNiyp9yw9rKK5snbksaHNYmfSx3Vu_J8TBA_st7mKNqSIlKD4scNsv5Hco-H5FCM8eGM9qtdK7xYvavdII-RSQ7xx_thqWz8af0pPl6Om7vclo9M7ZiL1ttTXvh6nw9XUfT763g-r38mzemyCq7bMf9NH3xYQzksoxmZ96ZKddN3Amwv_6fwFa9Aqr6aepyad1RIEMGIWUOx7zMXuwjhhRSEU8oy4QkqeEAX4LEgQ1gin80oqq7k23SdLixVxS1yhRo0NC7Iftp2asGqr5UZU6h5VoJ8CcG89PTJIZ1yOqszmXIT4rlnaxA89xf4a_GTtpCVh0UcW1U2NqsOvy_7H-C-5e8>
[image:
Comment]
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVUtuS2jAM_RryRiZ2rn7IA4WFsruh3eHSLS8ZxxaJIbfaDpnk6-tA-7AztsZzpCPJOmJUQ97IIW4bpa3JpHpoIa6hVyVoDdLqFMhU8NjDKHI9x7fMk6PIjyyh0osEqKgoYy07sNouKwWjWjT1xPBdRByriKMgDD3kMs_3eUSCzAswIgYgbsgd8NGzLu24gJpBDHeQQ1ODVcaF1q2auYsZXpujbqJtgRdCadOyrbpMacpuNmsq423N1QXMLyXtgc-pzLsKaq3muqB6rqXIc5DATZSJf3hm7lo3N6hn7gqGV8TwafjE5W17bZzk-uIl40e_2_eCbcjI16Q9L7fBbrXwksMLTsaF2lZlwQ2WHH6PyeroGw7eLXtBP3ejySHY95N4PxzH5HDrt8LkcU_igU_5lmg4_1pf-aa8Z-KV2P35Lf3Au4I2P9j-fV2Xwf5ncoF8_meT3oPmmIv98hu96OBNzXDQ6SpVTScZmN7_z-EfXgEXXTX9aRLGEjF2MHKIMR7yfWIj23FQyBmmnkcyZmRhNPJCcEmUOYg7Ppl5TpXjL_O1ZFyKihpPDjUoaGzg3aR3Og2zq4UeUqhpVgJ_roJ-btSjh3TiSLNpPKU6RoFramAU-CEiT-mn7XIiNHksU5U3hlXHX-X-C8Z150E>
[image:
Share]
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVUtuOmzAQ_Zrwlsg2l8ADD2mySbO7pF3l0m1ekLEn4AQwtc0i-Po1SSt1JXtkn_E54xkdRg3kUvVxI7VxxpCavoG4hk6XYAwop9WgUsFjj-DQ9ZDv2CPHoR86QqcXBVBRUcZGteA0bVYKRo2Q9cjwXRwhp4gvmM7DOULcJ2HmkgDji0cgZCxA2AOKH3VpywXUDGL4ANXLGpwyLoxp9MRdTMjaLn0TTQO8ENrYL890m2lD2W3GZGWzjd2mgOmlpB3wKVV5W0Ft9NQU1EyNEnkOCvjEXbemSrVsFYOJu_qnMiHBiFfARVtZ_N7WX5DJ2lip8XVBFViUsrHJ_wAjbzDeoX_GjJz6d1LetleJkuuTlwxv3W7fCbaJBr6OmvNyG-xWCy85PJFkWOhtVRbcYsnh95Csjr7lkN2yE_R9N1gNwb6fxOvhOCSHW7cVVsc9iTs-6i1xf_61vvJN-ZGJ52jWnV_SN7IrqPzB9q_rugz2P5ML5NM_m_QjkMdc7Jff6MUEL9oRMUEEo8gGD_t-NMMzhPCcM0I9L8qYyzxGQ28ObhRmCHPkRxMPVTn5MntHxaWoqM3kUIMGOQPejl6wc6uqthamT6GmWQn8YRPzcNt9wunIUdaFPKUmxoFraxAc-HMcPWwxOg-FeMw4tiqXllXHX63wCa3_8bM>

You’re on the free list for Skipped History
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVUEluAyEQfI05jmgWGw4ccsk3EEvbRpmBEUui-X2YOBdLrVJLperqquA6Pko9zF5aJyfYfuxoMv60FXvHSkbDalM0goHigkoy1whKKpKavVfEzaXV9DqQ7MOvKbieSj4VkoOm5GmEl3DXIgTk1F15YHfwDgIyVIFRpl--bsSEOaDBb6xHyUhW8-x9bxf-cWGfc9pX2neMz9T6fHlpw7fuwtcSyjZZksw8BlRPECClXmChFG4xMCeE9oEHEZwSN-RaeQqRSn0RdHuwt0ukmjVtbjIPzNiwLBjHmcxOchs59cNidn7F-ArdX9391WBPTZ2dRuu6gSufHgyu8gb_Ic8eqYKTIdM1lqnK5j3YL7Gdh8I>.
For the full experience, become a paying subscriber.
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVUk1v4jAQ_TXJrch2PkgOObAF1KBNEKKl0Evk2BNwSGwUOxvCr19n6R4qWSPPexq9mXnDqIGz6sbkprRxp1CY8QaJhEE3YAx0bq-hKwRPfIIjz0eBa78cR0HkCl1UHUBLRZOYrgf31peNYNQIJaeKwMMxci8JDis_4MzDlFZlyDhhDHtV6FWsCoKKoKcu7bkAySCBP9CNSoLbJBdjbtrxFg5Z26ev4nYDfhHa2JZnui-1oew6Y6qdWJuyTpTgeGujriAdbwnjBjNyGI-kuaa1Qlm98rPHbsj3g6Cfa2Sxe15nQ_5-HbP3E_r9umngbSG29Ypkj-y-Xe4sv9Np2zzYmIap_IVPAuHssQqy11SnMre5xdtcfX3mXekdUCrR7GUN27eTZiH--ijrY4DqxWE4F-ow3Pcfl828fmHd_jhXdcwcEvamLbTqO2ZbX_6f6htvgYu-nUaZ1vwNMiUNSGPRaXPMUFckBBGMYht8HATxDM8QwnPOCPX9uGQe8xmN_Dl4cVQizFEQOz5qz-THFt0uaURLLXMGCRrUDHg_uWoV27aXwowFSFo2wJ-Gm-fd_OutmGo6e0-8oMZ67lkNgsNgjuOnwdMNoQhPjGtVubJVMvlp6l-VZt8F>

Subscribe
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVUk1v4jAQ_TXJrch2PkgOObAF1KBNEKKl0Evk2BNwSGwUOxvCr19n6R4qWSPPexq9mXnDqIGz6sbkprRxp1CY8QaJhEE3YAx0bq-hKwRPfIIjz0eBa78cR0HkCl1UHUBLRZOYrgf31peNYNQIJaeKwMMxci8JDis_4MzDlFZlyDhhDHtV6FWsCoKKoKcu7bkAySCBP9CNSoLbJBdjbtrxFg5Z26ev4nYDfhHa2JZnui-1oew6Y6qdWJuyTpTgeGujriAdbwnjBjNyGI-kuaa1Qlm98rPHbsj3g6Cfa2Sxe15nQ_5-HbP3E_r9umngbSG29Ypkj-y-Xe4sv9Np2zzYmIap_IVPAuHssQqy11SnMre5xdtcfX3mXekdUCrR7GUN27eTZiH--ijrY4DqxWE4F-ow3Pcfl828fmHd_jhXdcwcEvamLbTqO2ZbX_6f6htvgYu-nUaZ1vwNMiUNSGPRaXPMUFckBBGMYht8HATxDM8QwnPOCPX9uGQe8xmN_Dl4cVQizFEQOz5qz-THFt0uaURLLXMGCRrUDHg_uWoV27aXwowFSFo2wJ-Gm-fd_OutmGo6e0-8oMZ67lkNgsNgjuOnwdMNoQhPjGtVubJVMvlp6l-VZt8F>

© 2021 Ben Tumin Unsubscribe
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxVUslu6kAQ_Bp8tGbzdvABsSSg2NHTIxC4WLN0YMBbPONn2V__xuEUadQadam6WlUtuYVr041p2xjrzaWwYwtpDYMpwVrovN5AV2iVMoJjylDgua_CcRB72hRfHUDFdZnargev7UWpJbe6qWdGQHGCvFuKqIyRoCgOaYhCFgopIhFjDuwrIjgiT13eKw21hBT-QTc2NXhlerO2NQu6XJCte-ah2xbUTRvrVvZNL4zl8uHLpnIol7Ou-yhtuCih-FlsQbe2eUC9oGsY91iS4_hJysfu3qDsvmHZ9GfI_w5aviST2ibtZbUL8_WSZYcNyaal2VXlTbledjhP2fojcBySrwbNP_PJzdDy9ajfDh9TdngMO-3m0KOe-5eXcjqf9uZyTEpx2rZitU_81-Ww6Qj7Dtrze_zN8y2Vma6KtyAf-njTXlffS1lPJ3YXztuUIIJR4grDQZD42EcIR0oSzlgiJJVM8phFQJNYIKxQkCwYqq7kly1el5a64g65Qg0GGh9UP8dUOLDqa23HAurZLfVM0D4P4ce6YuZ07kBUwW2KQ-o0CA6DCCfPxOajQDGeEc-pqsax6vR3Sv8BiBrM1g>
583 W. 215 St. Apt. NY New York, NY 10034

[image: Publish on Substack]
<https://email.mg2.substack.com/c/eJxNUV1rxCAQ_DXxMfh5MQ8-FEr_RjC6dycXNejacv--2muhIIvMMMzsrLMIt1ye5swVyRgbPk8wCb7qAYhQSKtQtuCN5EwLSRXpX8-00iTU7VoAog2HwdKAnG0_grMYchoKJdhKyd3s1HHQHqxjzEsulWR-WfSqnaListCXr20-QHJg4BPKMycgh7kjnnUSbxP_6K-2vaJ1j9nlOBDx0TBuNbfiYBLvf_TELwOP4EOLHf8J-Au6nBASdvSa89guGE45o2sfkim1zmymlC3ecSvlujvhpLNaLiBWvVPmqVonSeONz__TkGKOEG1nbpCgQp7Bt1FHN4yxpYDPDZLdD_CvpvBV-E-0bWhKP4TfLBp2Ed2Ds4ta2PpqZpRPNRsM6a4-d1Uy9RHOE_w9VOwH_AatTJmR>
-------------- next part --------------
An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
URL: <http://mail.geneseo.edu/pipermail/blackstudies-l/attachments/20210902/ce599cda/attachment-0001.html>


More information about the Blackstudies-l mailing list